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Literature and Art in Concentration Camps and Ghettos

Overview

Abstract

Scope and Contents

Biographical Note

Administrative Information

Detailed Description

RG-04.01, Willy Rosen Papers, Westerbork transit camp

RG-04.02, Moritz Mueller Collection of Theresienstadt Ghetto

RG-04.03, Works of Peter Kien and Children's Book of Inscriptions by Betti Gerard (Kubaschka)

RG -04.04, Allied internment camps for enemy aliens (refugees from Germany and Austria)



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Literature and Art in Concentration Camps and Ghettos, 1942-1945 | Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

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Collection Overview

Title: Literature and Art in Concentration Camps and Ghettos, 1942-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

ID: RG-04/RG-04

Primary Creator: Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)

Other Creators: Bruno Heilig (1940), Gerard, Betti (1934-), Willy Rosen, prisoner of Nazi German ghettos and concentration camps

Extent: 0.0

Arrangement:

The arrangement scheme for the record group was imposed during processing in the absence of an original order. Materials are arranged by creator, then by identifier, as assigned by the processor.

Record group is comprised of the following collections: 1. Willy Rosen papers; 2. Mortiz Mueller collection; Works of Peter Kien and Children Book of Inscriptions by Betti Gerard (Kubaschka)

Subjects: Art in camps and ghettos, literary works narrated in Nazi German concentration camps

Languages: Dutch;Flemish, German

Abstract

Camp and ghetto milieu was an utmost truthful discourse in regard to literary work (diaries and self-reflective essays) and art-works depicting a monstrous realities in terms of existential realities. Both forms of art, literary and fine art perpetuated by undeniable instincts of anticipatory anxiety and the narrative of truth.

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This record group contains narratives in the form of poetry, prose, illustrated diaries, and artworks created in the Nazi incarceration centers. Some writings were meant for public consumption, while the others were created clandestinely and remained hidden. Some of these narratives saw publication in the postwar period, while others never have been published.

Materials in this record group include unpublished narratives and prose, artifacts, artworks. Materials are digitized.

Collection Historical Note

RG-04, LITERATURE AND ART IN CAMPS AND GHETTOS

This record group contains narratives in the form of poetry, prose, as well as illustrated children book of inscription and artworks created in the Nazi incarceration camps and ghettos. Some writings were meant for public, while the others were created clandestinely and remained hidden. Some of these narratives saw publication in the postwar period, while the others never have been published.  This Record Group contains the Willy Rosen Collection of poems from Westerbork Camp, Moritz Müller Collection of sketches from Theresienstadt ghetto as well as the secondary sketches of Peter Kein, also from Theresienstadt ghetto and Betti Gerard (Kubaschka) Children Book of Inscription, created in Westerbork transit camp.

Historic/Content Notes, Camp narratives are from Westerbork transit camp. Artworks are from Theresienstadt ghetto. These are unpublished materials.

Organization, documents and artifacts. Documents are digitized.

Language, Dutch, German

RG-04.01, Willy Rosen Papers, Westerbork transit camp

RG-04.01.01, Willy Rosen: Testimony about his incarceration in the following German concentration camps: Westerbork, Theresienstadt, Auschwitz, and Gleiwitz. In Dutch, typewritten text on a half-page, notebook format, 25 pages.

RG-04.01.02, Poetry: "Farewell from and old camp inmate" in German. Willy Rosen is regarded to be the author.

Farewell to Westerbork transit camp, one page.

Created in: Westerbork transit camp, Drenthe province, the Netherlands, September 1944

RG-04.01.03, Poetry: First line of refrain: “We are in Drenthe, others are at home."

In German, by Willy Rosen., 3 p.

Created in: Westerbork transit camp, Drenthe province, the Netherlands, ca 1944

RG-04.01.04, Poetry: photocopy of alphabet poem, by Willy Rosen, in Dutch

Created in: Westerbork transit camp, Drenthe province, the Netherlands, ca 1944

RG-04.01.05, Poetry/Lyrics: photocopy of  "Westerbork: Het Leven en Werken in het Kamp" by Is. Van Nierop and Louis Coster. The introduction states that the lyrics are from songs performed by and for inmates at the cabaret that they staged at the Westerbork transit camp. In Dutch, 31 pages

Created in: Westerbork transit camp, Drenthe province, the Netherlands, ca 1944

RG-04.02, Photocopy of a sketch by Peter Kien: "Caricature of Dr. E. Springer (with nude)" and "Caricature of Mrs. Fischer (with child)"

Pencil, India ink, paper. Theresienstadt ghetto, Theresienstadt, 1942-1945

RG-04.03, Photocopy of the sketch by Peter Kien: Portrays a man looking to his left wearing a jacket with lapels, vest, and tie

Theresienstadt ghetto, Theresienstadt, 1942-1945

RG-04.04, Photocopy of the sketch by Peter Kien: "Portrait of Mr. Stein" chalk on paper

Theresienstadt ghetto, Theresienstadt, 1942-1945

RG-04.05, Westerbork: Het Leven en Werken in het Kamp (in Dutch): Westerbork: The Life and Work in the Camp by Is. van Nierop and Louis Coster. A Collection of poems and illustration. First published in the Hague in 1945. A photocopy.

RG-04.06, (RG-01.09.01): Betti Gerard (Kubaschka): Westerbork Camp Diary

RG-04.07, (RG-01.09.02): Betti Gerard (Kubaschka): Diary of the trip from Amsterdam to New York

RG-14.08, Moritz Müller Collection of Theresienstadt Ghetto

Provenance: Acquired from Mr. and Mrs. Beckmann on 1 November  1982.

858 S. Shenandoah Street, Los Angeles, CA 90035

Telephone: 310 854-3339

Born January 11, 1887 in Liptovký Mikuláš, Czechoslovakia; died October 1944 in Auschwitz, Poland.

<h1> Background</h1> Moritz Müller (Mueller) was born: January 11, 1887, he was sent to Theresienstadt from Prague with Transport Dh 424, July 8, 1943 and was later transported to Birkenau,

Transport Em 535, October 1, 1944.

His last address before deportation: Tomekstrasse 26, Prage XI

Müller was born the youngest of four children.  Shortly after his birth the family moved to Prague, where Müller grew up.  He started taking private classes in drawing during his childhood and, showing a great talent later, went on to the Prague Academy of Fine Arts.  While he did not paint for a living, he was constantly in contact with the art world.  He opened a private school for drawing in Prague, enrolled in the Mánes Artists Association, and after World War I established an auction hall for arts in one of Prague’s liveliest cultural and social centers. Müller is recorded as being popular and well liked among both Czech and German art collectors as well as among the artists themselves.  After the Nazi occupation, his auction hall was robbed and closed. He then worked for the Prague Jewish Community appraising the art objects from the confiscated Jewish properties.

<h1> Deportation to Theresienstadt</h1> On July 8, 1943, Müller (Mueller) was deported as “passenger” 424 on Transport Dh to Theresienstadt, where he spent the last fourteen months of his life. 

<h1> Work Assignment at Theresienstadt</h1> Despite his background of a professional artist, he did not follow the path of other artists in the Ghetto. Moritz Mueller did not find himself at art workshops or in the Technical Department with many of the other artists. He worked as the orderly at the Urological ward supervised by Dr. Kurt Weiner. This ward was located in the Engineers barracks.

<h1> Art Produced at Theresienstadt</h1> Many of Müller’s (Mueller) at least five hundred works were portraits of the ill, crippled and dying-- some beauteous, some witty, some shocking.  During his first few months at Theresienstadt, Müller drew at least one picture a day, often more.  As his internment continued, however, he drew less, each picture taking more time.  He dated every picture he made.

<h1> Deportation to Auschwitz</h1> On October 1, 1944, as a “passenger” No. 535 of the Transport Em, a month and a half after he has completed his last picture, dated August 16, 1944, Moritz Müller (Mueller) was deported to Auschwitz, where he was apparently gassed on October 3, 1944, the day the transport arrived.

<h1> </h1><h1> Bibliography:</h1>

Czech, Danuta. Auschwitz Chronicle 1939-1945. 1990.

International Tracing Service (ITS), Master Index, M-230.

Moritz Müller (1887-1944): Terezínský Portrét. Terezin Ghetto Museum. Terezin. 1992.

Terezínská pamĕtní kniha: Zidovske obeti nacisticy deportaci z Cech a Moravy 1941-1945. Terezínskí Iniciativa. Prague. 1995.

Testimony Art of the Holocaust. The Art Museum, Yad Vashem. Jerusalem. 1986.

COLLECTION

RG-04.02.01, Moritz Mueller, Theresienstadt: Urological Ward (English translation), pencil on paper, dated 20 October 1943;

RG-04.02.02, Untitled, a fragment, depicting two patients in a Hospital ward, dated 9 November 1943;

RG-04.02.03, Moritz Mueller, Theresienstadt, Urological Ward: A Male Patient is Examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, Section No. 312. Pencil on paper.  28 February 1944.

RG-04.02.04, Moritz Mueller, Theresienstadt, A Male Patient in Bed, a fragment. Pencil on paper. 21 March 1944.

On the back, there are the following notes in German:

8. Schonewald from Duisburg

Notes on transports: 12/3—1004 Transport from Frankfurt to Theresienstadt

16.11. 1942 Transport to Theresienstadt

RG-04.02.05, Moritz Müller, Theresienstadt, View of a Room, 28 August 1943, Pencil on paper.

RG-04.02.06, Moritz Mueller, A Male Patient in Bed, 21 March 1944

RG-04.02.07, Moritz Mueller, A Male Patient is Examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, Theresienstadt, 28 February 1944

RG-04.02.08, Moritz Mueller. A male patient in bed, a fragment, 21 March 1944

RG-04.02.09, Moritz Mueller, A Male Patient is Examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, a fragment, 28 February 1944

RG-04.02.10, Moritz Mueller, A Male Patient is Examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, a fragment, 28 February 1944

RG-04.02.11, Moritz Mueller, a backside with inscription, 21 March 1944

RG-04.02.11, Moritz Mueller, a backside with inscription, 21 March 1944

RG-04.02.12, Moritz Mueller, a backside with inscription, 21 March 1944

RG-04.02.13, Moritz Mueller, A Male Patient in Bed, 21 March 1944

RG-04.02.14, Moritz Mueller, A hospital room with two patients

RG-04.02.15, Moritz Mueller, A fragment of a hospital room, signed and dated

RG-04.02.16, Moritz Mueller, A hospital room a corner fragment, signed and dated

RG-04.02.17, Moritz Mueller, A Hospital Room with two patients, November 1943

RG-04.02.18, Moritz Mueller, The Urological Ward, October 1943

RG-04.03, Works of Peter Kien and Children Book of Inscriptions by Betti Gerard (Kubaschka)

RG-04.03.01, Peter Kien, Theresienstadt, graphics

RG-04.03.02 Betti Gerard (Kubaschka), Children's book of inscriptions, Westerbork Camp

Biographical Note

Moritz Müller was born on January 11, 1887, the youngest of four children. Shortly after his birth, the family moved to Prague, where Müller grew up. He started taking private classes in drawing during his childhood and, having shown great talent, Müller later went on to the Prague Academy of Fine Arts. While he did not paint for a living, he was constantly in contact with the art world. In Prague, Müller opened a private school for drawing and enrolled in the Mánes Artists Association. After World War I, he established an auction hall for arts in one of Prague’s liveliest cultural and social centers.

Müller is recorded as being popular and well-liked among both Czech and German art collectors, as well as among the artists themselves. After Nazi occupation, his auction hall was robbed and closed, and Müller began to work for the Prague Jewish Community, appraising the art objects from the confiscated Jewish properties.

On July 8, 1943, Müller was deported as "passenger" 424 on Transport Dh to Theresienstadt, where he spent the last fourteen months of his life. Despite his background as a professional artist, he was not assigned in the ghetto art workshops or in the technical department, as with many of the other artists. Rather, he worked as an orderly in the urological ward of Dr. Kurt Weiner in the engineer barracks.

While at Theresienstadt, Müller produced, at minimum, five hundred works of art, many of which were portraits of the ill, crippled, and dying--some beauteous, some witty, some shocking. During his first few months at Theresienstadt, Müller drew at least one picture a day, often more. As his internment continued, however, he drew less, each picture taking more time. Every picture has been dated by Müller, the last of which was was dated August 16, 1944.

On October 1, 1944, as "passenger" 535 on Transport Em, Müller was deported to Auschwitz, where he was believed to be gassed to death on October 3, 1944, which is the day the transport arrived.

Subject/Index Terms

Art in camps and ghettos
literary works narrated in Nazi German concentration camps

Administrative Information

Repository: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

Preferred Citation: RG-04, Literature and Art in Camps and Ghettos. Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust Archive.

Processing Information: Materials are primarily described using the local descriptive standards of the LA Museum of the Holocaust.


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-04.01, Willy Rosen Papers, Westerbork transit camp],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-04.02, Moritz Mueller Collection of Theresienstadt Ghetto],
[Sub-Collection 3: RG-04.03, Works of Peter Kien and Children's Book of Inscriptions by Betti Gerard (Kubaschka)],
[Sub-Collection 4: RG -04.04, Allied internment camps for enemy aliens (refugees from Germany and Austria), 1940],
[All]

Sub-Collection 2: RG-04.02, Moritz Mueller Collection of Theresienstadt GhettoAdd to your cart.

Moritz Müller (Mueller) was born: January 11, 1887, he was sent to Theresienstadt from Prague with Transport Dh 424, July 8, 1943 and was later transported to Birkenau,

Transport Em 535, October 1, 1944.

His last address before deportation: Tomekstrasse 26, Prage XI

Müller was born the youngest of four children.  Shortly after his birth the family moved to Prague, where Müller grew up.  He started taking private classes in drawing during his childhood and, showing a great talent later, went on to the Prague Academy of Fine Arts.  While he did not paint for a living, he was constantly in contact with the art world.  He opened a private school for drawing in Prague, enrolled in the Mánes Artists Association, and after World War I established an auction hall for arts in one of Prague’s liveliest cultural and social centers. Müller is recorded as being popular and well liked among both Czech and German art collectors as well as among the artists themselves.  After the Nazi occupation, his auction hall was robbed and closed. He then worked for the Prague Jewish Community appraising the art objects from the confiscated Jewish properties.

On July 8, 1943, Müller (Mueller) was deported as “passenger” 424 on Transport Dh to Theresienstadt, where he spent the last fourteen months of his life.

Despite his background of a professional artist, he did not follow the path of other artists in the Ghetto. Moritz Mueller did not find himself at art workshops or in the Technical Department with many of the other artists. He worked as the orderly at the Urological ward supervised by Dr. Kurt Weiner. This ward was located in the EnginMany of Müller’s (Mueller) at least five hundred works were portraits of the ill, crippled and dying-- some beauteous, some witty, some shocking.  During his first few months at Theresienstadt, Müller drew at least one picture a day, often more.  As his internment continued, however, he drew less, each picture taking more time.  He dated every picture he made. eers barracks.

On October 1, 1944, as a “passenger” No. 535 of the Transport Em, a month and a half after he has completed his last picture, dated August 16, 1944, Moritz Müller (Mueller) was deported to Auschwitz, where he was apparently gassed on October 3, 1944, the day, when  the transport arrived.

Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-04.02.01, Moritz Mueller, Theresienstadt, Urological Ward , pencil on paper, a signed fragment, 20 October 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A signed drawing of Room No. 307, in the Urological Ward of Theresienstadt ghetto. The drawing is done by pencil onto paper by Moritz Mueller.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-04.02.02, Moritz Mueller, Urological Ward, 26 August 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A drawing of the view of the Urological Ward, at the Theresienstadt Ghetto.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-04.02.03, Moritz Mueller, Urological Ward, 18 August 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A view of the Urological Ward, Theresienstadt Ghetto, on 18 August 1943, pencil on paper
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-04.02.04, Moritz Mueller, Urological Ward with four patients, signed, circa 1943-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Urological Ward with four patients, Room No. 307, Theresienstadt Ghetto,  pencil on paper
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-04.02.05, Moritz Mueller, Urological Ward with four patients, signed, circa 1943-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
View of the Urological Ward, Room No. 307 with four patients, Theresienstadt ghetto, pencil on paper
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-04.02.06, Moritz Mueller, a male patient in bed, a fragment, 21 March 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A male patient in bed, a fragment, Theresienstadt ghetto, 21 March 1943, pencil on paper
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-04.02.07, Moritz Mueller, a male patient is being examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, Theresienstadt, 28 February 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A male patient is being examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, Theresienstadt ghetto, 28 February 1944, pencil on paper.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-04.02.08, Moritz Mueller, a male patient in bed, a fragment, 21 March 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A male patient in bed, a fragment, Theresienstadt ghetto, 21 March 1944, pencil on paper.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-04.02.09, Moritz Mueller, a male patient is examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, a fragment, 28 February 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Dr. Kurt Weiner examines a male patient in the Urological Ward, Theresienstadt Ghetto, February 1944, pencil on paper
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-04.02.10, Moritz Mueller, a male patient is examined by Dr. Kurt Weiner, a fragment, 28 February 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Dr. Kurt Weiner examines a patient in this drawing of the urological ward in Theresienstandt ghetto.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-04.02.11, Moritz Mueller, a back side with inscription, 21 March 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Inscription with the date, 21 March 1944, pencil on paper.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-04.02.12, Moritz Mueller, a back side with an inscription, March 21, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The backside of one of Moritz Mueller's drawings which includes a note.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-04.02.13, Moritz Mueller, a male patient in bed, March 21, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Urological Ward, depiction of the male patient in bed, Theresienstadt ghetto, pencil on paper, 21 March 1944
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-04.02.14, Moritz Mueller, a hospital room with two patients, circa 1943-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Depiction of the hospital room with two patients in beds, Theresienstadt ghetto, pencil on paper
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-04.02.15, Moritz Mueller, a fragment  of a hospital room, October 20, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Depiction of a hospital room, Theresienstadt ghetto, pencil on paper, 20 October 1943
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-04.02.16, Moritz Mueller, a hospital room, corner fragment, signed and dated, circa 1943-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The corner fragment of a drawing of the hospital room at Theresienstadt ghetto, room No. 307.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-04.02.17, Moritz Mueller, a hospital room with two patients, November 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Depiction of a hospital room with two patients in beds, pencil on paper, November 1943
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 18: RG-04.02.18, Moritz Mueller, a Urological Ward, October 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, urological ward
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Creators:
Müller, Moritz (1887-1944)

Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-04.01, Willy Rosen Papers, Westerbork transit camp],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-04.02, Moritz Mueller Collection of Theresienstadt Ghetto],
[Sub-Collection 3: RG-04.03, Works of Peter Kien and Children's Book of Inscriptions by Betti Gerard (Kubaschka)],
[Sub-Collection 4: RG -04.04, Allied internment camps for enemy aliens (refugees from Germany and Austria), 1940],
[All]


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