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Erich Lichtblau Papers

Overview

Abstract

Scope and Contents

Biographical Note

Administrative Information

Detailed Description

RG-26.01, Erich Lichtblau (Leskly) Collection, Documents

RG-26.02, Erich Lichtblau (Leskly) Collection, Articles and Catalogues



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Erich Lichtblau Papers, 1940-1984 | Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

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Collection Overview

Title: Erich Lichtblau Papers, 1940-1984Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Predominant Dates:1942 -- 1973

ID: RG-26/RG-26

Primary Creator: Leskly, Eli (1911-2004)

Extent: 0.0

Arrangement:

The arrangement scheme for the record group was imposed during processing in the absence of an original order. Materials are arranged by format, then by identifier, as assigned by the processor.

Record group is comprised of three collections: 1. Materials related to They Shall Be Counted catalogue; 2. Collection of articles, catalogues, and illustrations on and about Eli Leskly; 3. Eli Leskly artwork.

Subjects: Art in camps and ghettos, Art in ghettos, Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Collaboration in ghettos, Collaboration in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 --1945, Corruption in the ghetto, Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945), Czechoslovakia (1945--1991), Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Deportation from the Teresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Documents in Czech language, Documents in German language, Elsa (Else) Lichtblau, Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist, Germany (1939--1945), ghetto identification document, Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto, Givat Chayim (Israel), Hiding incriminating documents in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, Hrusov (Czechoslovakia), Humor and satire in the Holocaust, Identification documents of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Ilan Leskly, philanthropist, postwar, Immunity from deportations from the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -1945, Israel (1948 --1967), Jewish Council of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Jewish Order Police in ghettos, Jewish Order Police in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Liberation of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, May 1945, Los Angeles (California, United States), Paul R. Greenberg, philanthropist, postwar, Phenomenal status of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Philanthropic activity, postwar, Pisek (Czechosloavkia), Prisoners of the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Relations between the inhabitants of the Theresienstadt  Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945, Tel Aviv (Israel), The system of protection in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945, Wulkow (Germany)

Languages: German, Czech

Abstract

This Record Group comprises collections of preparatory materials in the form of art-works and correspondences, all inall related to Erich Lichtblau creativity in the Theresienstadt ghetto and during the postwar period in Czechoslovakia and Israel.

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This record group contains the original watercolors and sketches created by Eli Leskly, also known as Erich Lichtblau, while in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, as well as in the postwar period in Czechoslovakia. The over 150 artworks held by the LA Museum of the Holocaust include watercolors and sketches from Leskly's period in the ghetto; small watercolors from the postwar period; and replicas of Theresienstadt pictorial diary from his period in Israel in the 1960s.

The materials in this record group are digitized.

Collection Historical Note

While living in Israel, Eli Leskly decided to recreate and provide expanded captions for the original watercolors he painted whilst in Theresienstadt Ghetto. He recreated more than seventy watercolors, using both watercolor and diluted ink. Though these recreations stemmed from the original watercolors, there were some notable variations with regard to the captions and slogans. By recreating these works, Leskly made them available for exhibitions in Israel. His first personal exhibition took place in Kibbutz Givat Chayim in Israel in 1978. His works also crossed the ocean in 1984, where they were displayed at the Jewish Community Building Galleries in Los Angeles, CA.

Biographical Note

Erich Lichtblau, later known as Eli Leskly, was born in 1911 in Hrusov (Hruschau), Czechoslovakia (then Austria-Hungary). Little is known about his life in interwar Czechoslovakia (1919-1939). There are only two scarce biographical notes, which relate that he was trained as a commercial designer and that, in 1940, he and his wife, Else, lived in the town of Pisek.

In November 1942, Erich and Else Lichtblau were deported to Theresienstadt (Terezin) ghetto, which, besides being a main incarceration center for Central European Jews, also served as a place used to deceive the world that the Jews of Europe were alive and being treated well. (The Nazi regime used it as a stage for filming propaganda and a tourist stop for international commissions.) Being an inmate and an employee of the Technical Department, Erich Lichtblau exercised a relative freedom of mobility within the ghetto. He thus had a unique opportunity to observe day-to-day scenes of ghetto life. Having pictured these mini-stories in his mind, he began to transfer them on to paper. Between 1942 and 1945, he created a pictorial ghetto-diary. Not long before liberation, Lichtblau, fearful of SS searches for evidence incriminating the Germans, destroyed many of his paintings, especially the captions to the watercolors. His wife Else managed to salvage many fragments, by clandestinely hiding them. After the liberation they recovered the hidden artworks.

Erich Lichtblau's artworks significantly differ from a ‘typical’ Holocaust graphic. The works capture the complications and ironies of Theresienstadt. They universally depict the fundamental desperation lurking in every moment of life in the show ghetto. Instead of a barbed wire, striped uniform, and death scenes, ghetto life is seen through the prism of everyday errands and chores, depicted in grotesques and caricatures. Erich Lichtblau convincingly challenges the Nazi anti-Jewish concepts by depicting and interpreting the ghetto life in a style he would use for a ‘normal’ commercial advertisement in his prewar practice.

While in Israel, circa the 1960s, Lichtblau changed his name to Eli Leskly.

Subject/Index Terms

Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Collaboration in ghettos
Collaboration in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 --1945
Corruption in the ghetto
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Czechoslovakia (1945--1991)
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Deportation from the Teresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Documents in Czech language
Documents in German language
Elsa (Else) Lichtblau
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Germany (1939--1945)
ghetto identification document
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Givat Chayim (Israel)
Hiding incriminating documents in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hrusov (Czechoslovakia)
Humor and satire in the Holocaust
Identification documents of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Ilan Leskly, philanthropist, postwar
Immunity from deportations from the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -1945
Israel (1948 --1967)
Jewish Council of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Police in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Liberation of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, May 1945
Los Angeles (California, United States)
Paul R. Greenberg, philanthropist, postwar
Phenomenal status of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Philanthropic activity, postwar
Pisek (Czechosloavkia)
Prisoners of the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Relations between the inhabitants of the Theresienstadt  Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Tel Aviv (Israel)
The system of protection in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Wulkow (Germany)

Administrative Information

Repository: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

Physical Access Note: Artworks from this record group are exhibited in the museum, as well as stored in the archive. A selection of Leskly's works can also be viewed in the library's special collection section.

Acquisition Method: The original watercolors and sketches from Leskly's period in the ghetto, as well as his enlarged and reconstructed replicas were purchased by two philanthropists from Los Angeles and donated to the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust in the mid-1980s.

Related Materials: Leskly’s paintings could be also found in the museums of Prague, Yad Vashem, and Beit Theresienstadt in Israel.

Related Publications: They Shall be Counted: The Theresienstadt Ghetto and Art of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly. Edited by Vladimir Melamed. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust, 2010.

Preferred Citation: RG-26, Eli Leskly Collection. Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust Archive.

Processing Information: Materials are primarily described using the local descriptive standards of the LA Museum of the Holocaust.


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-26.01, Erich Lichtblau (Leskly) Collection, Documents, 1939 -- 1970s],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-26.02, Erich Lichtblau (Leskly) Collection, Articles and Catalogues, 1970--early 1980's],
[All]

Sub-Collection 2: RG-26.02, Erich Lichtblau (Leskly) Collection, Articles and Catalogues, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.
This collection contains documents, sketches, personal letters, and interviews from Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.
Subject/Index Terms:
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Phenomenon of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Collection of Folder-Level 1: RG-26.02.01, Articles and CataloguesAdd to your cart.
Subject/Index Terms:
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Phenomenon of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-26.02.01.01- Abstract by Jörn WendlandAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A doctoral thesis study titled Abstract by Jörn Wendland.  The study explores the picture stories, or Holocaust art, created by survivors of German concentration camps and ghettos.
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust-related art
Post-Liberation
Personal testimonies
autobiography
personal diaries
Diaries during the Holocaust
English, language
Documents in English language
German, language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Wendland, Jörn
University of Vienna; Institute for Art History
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-26.02.01.02- Erich Lichtblau-Leskly introductory article, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The introductory article to They Shall Be Counted; The Theresienstadt Ghetto Art of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  The article is written by Dr. Vladimir Melamed, the staff archivist and historian of the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.  The article features photographs of Erich and Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly as well as their ghetto identification documents.
Subject/Index Terms:
wartime photographs
identification photograph
Photographs
Identification documents
ghetto identification document
Transport documents
Transport lists
Transports
English, language
Documents in English language
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Melamed, Vladimir (Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust)
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-26.02.01.26- Alphabetized Catalogue of Artworks, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An alphabetized catalogue of the artworks of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  Each piece of artwork is alphabetized by the title of the piece and provides a brief description of what is happening in the artwork and provides brief historical context.
Subject/Index Terms:
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Melamed, Vladimir (Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-26.02.01.32- The Ghetto Diary in the Picture-Stories, Newsletter, 2008Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A newsletter discussing the artwork of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  The newsletter also gives a short biography of Erich and was written by Dr. Vladimir Melamed, the staff archivist and historian at the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.
Subject/Index Terms:
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Photographs
Holocaust-related art
Creators:
Melamed, Vladimir (Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust)
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-26.02.01.34- Erich Lichtblau, Portraiture of a Ghetto Life, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A series of selected works from the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust's collection of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly's artworks.  This includes an article about Erich and Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly and their time spent in the Theresienstadt ghetto in Terezin, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic).
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust-related art
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
wartime photographs
Transport lists
Transport documents
Identification documents
ghetto identification document
Photographs
identification photograph
Creators:
Melamed, Vladimir (Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust)
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-26.02.01.36- Brief Leskly bio by Jörn Wendland, Email, 2008Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An email between Jorn Wendland and Dr. Vladimir Melamed concerning the life and art of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  The email entails a brief biography provided by Erich's daughter Mira Oren.
Subject/Index Terms:
Business-related correspondence
Personal correspondence
Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)
Klatovy (Czech Republic)
Pisek (Bohemia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Tel Aviv (Israel)
English, language
Correspondence in English language
Documents in English language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Wendland, Jörn
Melamed, Vladimir (Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Collection of Folder-Level 2: RG-26.02.02, Captioned photographsAdd to your cart.
Subject/Index Terms:
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Phenomenon of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-26.02.02.01- A Cheap Cake for Birthday, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Theresienstadt Poor Man's Torte; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  One woman whispers the recipe to the other: 2 measures of dough, 1 cup of coffee, 1/2 spoonful of sugar, 200 grams margarine.  The tort is signed "Lola."
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-26.02.02.02- A Dream, Home for Weary Halutzim, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Dream (Mirage); artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly recreated during his Israeli period.  The piece depicts a ghetto prisoner dreaming about the promised land in Israel.  The walls of the building state "Nursing home for weary Halutzim (Pioneers) of the 6th Aliyah (emigration to Israel)."  Below the portrait of Dr. Walter Wiener, it says "Pioneer Tribes."  The bottom right caption says "A Dream (Mirage)."  In the bottom right hand corner, the piece is signed Eli with Terezin Ghetto below the signature and retrospectively dated 1944.
Subject/Index Terms:
Israel
Immigration to Israel
German, language
Documents in German language
Holocaust-related art
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-26.02.02.03- A Farewell, See You Again in the Mass Grave, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Farewell: Until We meet in the Mass Grave; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The piece depicts a man, possibly being deported, bidding farewell to an elderly man in the ghetto hospital.  The inscription above the man says "A Farewell...until we meet in the mass grave..."  This is a prime example of the humor used during the Holocaust.  The artwork is signed in the bottom right hand corner with his name, Eli, as well as Terezin Ghetto.  The piece is retrospectively dated 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
ghetto hospital
mass graves
humor in the ghettos and concentration camps
German, language
Documents in German language
Holocaust-related art
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-26.02.02.04- A Good Czech Gendarme, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Good Czech Gendarme; artwork by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly done during his Israeli period.  The piece depicts a guard from the Theresienstadt ghetto smoking a cigarette while two Jewish prisoners wait close by to see if he will discard his cigarette butt.  The Jewish prisoners were not allowed to smoke and, according to Erich, some of the guards would discard their cigarette butts on the ground and leave them for the Jews to finish.  The text in the top left corner says "He often casts away large cigarette butts."  At the bottom left it says "A good gendarme."  The artwork is signed and retrospectively dated eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto Police
Cigarettes in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-26.02.02.05- A Halutz in the Ghetto and his Three Points, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Halutz (Pioneer) in the Ghetto and His Three Points; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The artwork features a man, identified as "Comrade Kurt Kartacek, a Hebrew teacher in the Terezin ghetto", balances on a wire while dreaming of the Holy Land.  According to Lichtblau-Leskly, the Halutz (Pioneer) must observe three very important points that will help him hold his own and maintain equilibrium.  These are to learn Hebrew, to visit the sick, and to celebrate Oneg Shabbat (Comrade Kartacek, the Hebrew teacher).

In the left circle, it states "Hebrew" in Hebrew letters.  In the right circle, it states "One ration of sugar and margarine for the ill comrades."  In the circle at the man's feet, it states " Position (the correct balance)."  At the left, the title states "The Pioneer in the ghetto and his three points."  Under the portrait to the right, it states "Kartacek, Hebrew teacher."  At the bottom right, the piece is signed and retrospectively dated eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
Hebrew, language
Zionistic politics
Israel
Immigration to Israel
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-26.02.02.06- A Night with Her Alone at the Bar Palanda, 1970--early1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Night with Her "Alone" at the Palanda Bar; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  In Erich Lichtblau-Leskly's room there was an empty top bunk that was enclosed by some planks and sheets so that it afforded some seclusion.  Many couples took great risks in arranging some private time with their beloved.  Lichtblau-Leskly recalled that in some rooms where a "palanda" had been built schedules had been set up for such visitation.  These moments of semi-privacy were cherished.

The piece depicts a man in a palanda bunk, leaning out and winking.  The top title says 'A night "alone" with HER at the Palanda Bar.'  In the bottom right hand corner, the piece is signed and retrospectively dated eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-26.02.02.07- A Wool Vest for a Half of Bread, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread; artwork by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly done during his Israeli period.  The art depicts an elderly woman bartering with a younger woman, offering her a cardigan in exchange for half a loaf of bread.  It was official ghetto policy that young people and others able to work should receive better rations than old or sick inmates.  Most of the older inmates could not work; some were assigned to indoor cleaning tasks and had no access to extra rations.  Their condition, therefore, as well as that of sick people in the ghetto, was pitiful, and they deteriorated very rapidly.  Often the only things the elderly could use to barter for food were the clothes they still owned.

The top title states "A cardigan for half a loaf of bread."  At the bottom right corner, the piece is signed  and retrospectively dated eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
Barter and street sale in the ghettos
Jewish elders
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food rations for a heavy duty worker in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Additional food rations for the heavy works in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
German, language
Documents in German language
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-26.02.02.08- Baptized Jews are Coming, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Baptized Jews Are Coming; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  Nazi racial laws determined who was a Jew and who was an Aryan.  Having two Jewish-born grandparents would be enough to be classified as Jewish, even if the family had been Christian for two generations.

The top title says "Ghettoized."  Across the center, in wavy ribbon, punctuated by Jewish stars, it says "Baptized Jews are coming, baptized Jews."  In the upper right hand corner, it says "Clothes make the man / Gottfried Keller / Stars make the Jews / Adolf Hitler."  At the bottom right hand corner, the piece is signed and retrospectively dated eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi racial laws
Nazi racial theory
Racial ideology
Laws of German racial purity
Adolf Hitler, dictator and German Chancellor and President
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-26.02.02.09- Competitors for Potatoes, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Competitors for Potatoes; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The piece depicts an elderly woman picking through the trash for potatoes or anything else edible.  Among the inmates of the Theresienstadt ghetto, the elderly fared by far the worst.  Unable to perform much physical work, they had to subsist on starvation rations.  Hunger forced them to beg, and they often implored those in the soup line for a few spoonfuls.  Some rummaged in rubbish heaps for potato peels or other discarded edibles.

At the top, the title says "Competitors."  The sign on the wall says "Only ashes."  The text at the bottom says "A source of wealth--dung heap of potatoes!"  The piece is signed and retrospectively dated eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
Starvation, ghettos
Jewish elders
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-26.02.02.10- Death Rate 150 Daily, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Death Rate: 150 Daily; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The piece depicts a nurse assisting an elderly woman attempting to walk while other nurses tend to sick patients in bed.  In 1942, the number of deaths averaged about 4,000 persons a month.  In 1943, the mortality rates in the ghetto began to rise as a result of starvation or malnutrition, lack of hygiene, or medical help, as well as subhuman living conditions.  Every morning the corpses were collected and thrown on a hearse and dragged to the crematorium.  The inmates were required to pull the carts.

At the bottom right, the title says "Death rate: 150 daily."  At the bottom right corner, the piece is signed and retrospectively dated, eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
ghetto hospital
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Living conditions in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-26.02.02.11- Do Not Built in the Goles (Diaspora), 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Thou Shall Not Build in the Diaspora; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The lack of privacy in the ghetto was such that many tried to build cubbyholes, or tiny nooks, under the roof or in an attic or some corner--whatever spot might lend itself to hammering a few planks together to allow for some privacy.  The painting shows a man on a ladder working on a Kumbal (cubbyhole) while another is dragging his belongings to join a transport to the East.  The departing man advises the inmate on the ladder not the build in Goles, for sooner or later all Jews will be ordered onto a transport.

The large title to the right says "Thou shalt not build 'in the Diaspora!'."  The text below the title says "In the transport to the East."  In the bottom right corner, the piece is signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 43 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Living conditions in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-26.02.02.12- Doctors are Hungry Too, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Doctors Are Hungry Too; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a line-up of patients waiting to be seen by a physician, who gives preference to a cook.  Widespread hunger gave an edge to the cooks and bakers at all times.  They were perceived as the unofficial aristocracy of the ghetto.  Food was a very powerful commodity in the ghetto, one that made a difference between life and death.

The top title says "Because doctors are also hungry, a cook is always prioritized."  The sign on the door says "Receiving hours from 9-12" in Austrian German.  In the right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
ghetto hospital
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Starvation, ghettos
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-26.02.02.13- Encephalitis in the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Encephalitis in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  In the painting, a physician tests an ill person by holding his fingers in front of a patient's eyes.

Encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain, was one of the many infectious diseases that ravaged inmates of the ghetto.  The epidemic of encephalitis in Theresienstadt had a relatively mild course; although many inmates came down with this infection, only few died of it.

The title at the top says "Encephalitis in the ghetto!".  In the center, next to the doctor, it says "Medical eye test with finger."  In the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
medical doctors in the ghettos
ghetto hospital
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-26.02.02.14- Encounter of the Carriages, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Two Carts Meet in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts two carts meeting.  On the right, an Aryan carriage is pulled by a pair of horses, and on the left a Jewish man pulls a cart himself.

In Theresienstadt, everything that had to be moved was dragged by men and loaded onto hearses, which had previously been used for burial servies in Jewish communities.  Horses were not available in the ghetto, so Jewish men became beasts of burden.

The title at the top says "Encounter of the carts in the ghetto."  At the bottom, it says "A Jewish cart and an Aryan one."  In the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezing Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Living conditions in ghettos
Aryanization, alienation of Jewish-owned businesses, 1933 -- 1945
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-26.02.02.15- Everyone's Dream, Privacy in his own Closet, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Every Man's Dream: To Be Alone in His Own Kumbal; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a man in a bed, asleep in a small Kumbal.

Privacy was only possible for the owner of a Kumbal, a small compartment carved out of attics, closets, and corners.  These Kumbals were usually eight square feet and separated by three walls made of stolen boards, nailed together, and covered with sheets and blankets.

The title at the top left says "Every man's dream: to be alone in his own cubbyhole."  The text in the smoke says "Yes, a man with a cubbyhole is better off!"  The painting is signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-26.02.02.16- Good Morning Herr Doktor, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Good Morning, Herr Doktor; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a line of ghetto guards saluting their commander, Dr. Karl Lowenstein.

An unarmed unit, the Ghettowache (ghetto guards) was formed in December 1941.  Their mandate was to maintain order within the ghetto.  In August 1943, perhaps concerned about a possible uprising by this well-trained unit, the Nazis dissolved the Ghetto Guards and its members were included in the first transport to the East.  It is unknown is Lowenstein survived the war.

The title in the top left corner says "On the bastions: the morning greeting of the Ghetto Guards (for Dr. Lowenstein)."  The text in the center says "Good morning, Herr Doctor!"  Above Lowenstein's lifted leg, in small letters, Dr. Lowenstein is written.  The painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Dr. Karl Löwenstein (commander of Ghettowache, Theresienstadt ghetto)
Ghetto Police
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-26.02.02.17- Hambo, the Singer, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Hambo, the Pop-Hit Singer; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a singing man named Hambo singing and playing the accordian.

A member of the privileged Danish contingent, Hambo became a great attraction in the Theresienstadt ghetto.  He often accompanied his songs with an accordian or a violin and became more than a crooner of popular songs.  His singing style of inter-changing falsetto into deep bass was unusual and astonishing.  Not only did he contrast octaves from high to low, he would also juxtapose sharp, uttermost striking contraries in the text.  His mournful song, "Ich sterbe, Ich sterbe" (I am dying, I am dying) switches into a shockingly joyful refrain: "tralala tralala."  Hambo also played the violin at Erich and Elsa's wedding in Theresienstadt in March 1945, earning a special place in Erich's heart.

The title above Hambo's head says "Pop-hit singer Hambo."  The text beside Hambo's head says "Hambo came with the Danish Transport to the Ghetto."  The text coming out of Hambo's mouth says "He sang a song: I am dying, I am dying, trala lala trala lalala."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Entertainment in the ghettos
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 18: RG-26.02.02.18- Head Count, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Head Count: Thou Shall Be Counted; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts prisoners of the Theresienstadt ghetto being counted.

On November 11, 1943, the SS adminstration unexpectedly ordered a "census count" of the ghetto population.  All forty thousand ghetto inhabitants were forced to stay outside the camp on the former army drill grounds from the early morning to the late afternoon.  Lichtblau-Leskly recalls that the Jewish Council attempted to conduct the head count in as orderly a manner as possible, allowing children and elderly people to pass the census first.

The title on the bottom right says "Thou shall be counted."  Below the title, it says "Back from the inhabitants, counting the ghetto (children and elderly people first)."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Censuses
Ghetto census
Children in the ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 19: RG-26.02.02.19- Impetigo in the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Impetigo in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a man who has been infected with impetigo and has sores all over his body.  He stands naked with the entrance of Theresienstadt behind him as well as part of the Czech coat of arms.

Many infectious diseases were endemic to Theresienstadt.  Their spread was inevitable, due to the unsanitary conditions in the chronically overcrowded ghetto.  Impetigo, a bacterial skin infection, affected many inmates who suffered from pustules and eruptions.  Many people caught this infectious skin disease because of the bugs, lice, filth, and unsanitary conditions.

The title beside the man says "Impetigo in the ghetto."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
Entrance to Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 20: RG-26.02.02.20- In Beth Halutzoth, in the Hamburg Barracks, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

In Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg Barracks), Room 305; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts two women sitting in Room 305 in Beit Halutzoth (Pioneer House), officially the Hamburg barracks for women.

The Hamburg barracks housed women exclusively.  Among the inmates was Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich's wife, who shared the room with twenty-five other women.  All were at one time members of the Zionist movement, whose dream it was to move to Palestine right after liberation.  The Halutzoth marked every Friday evening, observing the arrival of Sabbath with Oneg Shabbat.  The women would sing Hebrew songs and learn to speak Hebrew.  The Halutzoth were ardent Zionists; their dream of settling in Palestine gave them purpose and strength to carry on.

The title at the top right corner says "In Beth Halutzoth, "Hamburg barracks," Room no. 305."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Zionist activities
Zionistic politics
Living conditions in ghettos
Ghetto barracks
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 21: RG-26.02.02.21- Jewish Anti-Semite in the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Jewish Anti-Semitism in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a bird with a Star of David on its chest deficating into his cage where newly hatched birds with Stars of David on their shells are resting.

Theresienstadt's inmate population was very diverse, and about ten percent of the inmates did not consider themselves to be Jewish.  Their misfortune came about by having one Jewish parent or grandparent, while they had long ago renounced any affiliation with their Jewish roots.  Among the many assimilated Jews of Europe were also some self-hating individuals who had no sense of a shared Jewish destiny.  Some were deeply resentful of being identified as Jews.  Many were one-time ardent German partriots, often anti-Semites who felt doubly betrayed and bitter about being forced to share the destiny of the doomed.  Lichtblau-Leskly uses a bird with a yellow Jewish star on its chest, defecating in its nest, to symbolize those Jews who exhibited anti-Semitism toward their fellow inmates in order to be favored by the Nazis.  The sign on the large birdcage displaying a swastika says: "Jewish Settlement Area in Theresienstadt."  The Nazis chose to use this name for Theresienstadt instead of "Ghetto Theresienstadt" hoping that it would sound less offensive and would please the Red Cross inspectors.

The text at the top of the painting says "Jewish Antisemites in the Ghetto."  The text on the left says "The stupid yellow-star bird befouls its own nest."  The sign on the bird's cage says "Jewish settlement area."  At the bottom right, the painting is signed and dated retrospectively, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Antisemitism
Antisemitic satire
Ghetto Police
humor in the ghettos and concentration camps
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 22: RG-26.02.02.22- Jewish Order Police from the Westerbork Camp, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Jewish Police Arrive from Holland; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts people arriving from the Westerbork Transit Camp in Holland, which includes members of the Jewish Police.

On January 21, 1944, a group of Jewish deportees was transferred to Theresienstadt from Westerbork transit camp in Holland.  The men of the Westerbork Ordnungsdienst unit wore military caps and goggles.  In most transit camps the Germans formed some units that were supposed to supervise order.

The title at the top says "Jewish Order Police from Holland.  The transport from the Westerbork camp."  The two Jewish stars contain the word "Jood", which means "Jew" in Dutch.  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Westerbork (Transit camp)
Westerbork (Netherlands: Transit Camp)
Transports
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 23: RG-26.02.02.23- Leisure Activity, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Free Time; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a man doing forced labor while dreaming about performing on a stage.

The Nazis called work in the ghetto "free-time activity."  In reality, everything aside from work was free-time activity.  The level of performing arts in Terezin was extremely high, as many prominent Jewish musicians, artists, writers, and academians ended up in Theresienstadt.

The top title says "Free time."  The words beside the actor says "In Theresienstadt ghetto, work is "free time"--however, everything else is free time."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Entertainment in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 24: RG-26.02.02.24- Light Control, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Light Control; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a man who has installed an illegal temproary electrial line reading while being scolded by an inspector.

With only one lightbulb per room, inmates often installed illegal temporary electrial lines to be able to read in the upper bunks.  Guards would check for illegal light lines, a transgression subject to punishment.  Like all else in the ghetto, skirting the rules was risky.  The sudden "light controls," or inspections, were unpredictible, and if an illegal installation was found, the violator was severely punished, likely to be enrolled in the next transport to the East.

The top right title says "Light control."  Below the title, it says "For illegal diversion of electricity, there was often admonishment."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Illegal activities in the ghettos
Books in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 25: RG-26.02.02.25- Mission of the Economic Department, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Motto of the Economic Department: "We Take Care of It All!"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The poster shows a cook, a baker, and others, all hard at work, their big hands "organizing" all they can.

In this sketch, Lichtblau-Leskly satirizes the official motto of the Economic Department: "We take care of it all!"  The Economic Department was notorious for its corruption, especially because food-supply distribution was under its supervision.

The title at the top left says "The motto of the Economic Department: We are there for all!"  The list below the title says "Criminal police / economic police / stage designers and producers / kitchen guards / All steal", in Yiddish with Czech spelling.  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 26: RG-26.02.02.26- Permit Stamp, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a young man who has just received a package from someone outside of the ghetto.

It was not an ordinary thing to receive a package from the outside world.  In Theresienstadt, it was possible to get food parcles from family members and friends who lived in the Protectorate of Bohemia adn Moravia.  Relatives had to get a permit stamp.  Having obtained such a stamp, they could dispatch a gift parcel directed to the post office in the ghetto.  Only few inmates received 10-kilo packages from family or friends.

The title at the top says "Permit stamp for 10 kilogram parcels from friends and relatives."  The postage stamp says Theresienstadt and below the stamp it says "Only few received parcels."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Packages
food parcels
Parcel labels
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 27: RG-26.02.02.27- Planks for a Kumbal, 1970--early1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Organizing" Planks for a Kumbal; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts what appears to be two ghetto inmates stealing wooden boards to build a Kumbal.

In the ghetto barracks, there was not a chance of finding a spot for even a moidcum of privacy.  Regular ghetto barracks often had three levels of bunks.  In search of privacy, everyone tried to get some boards for building a Kumbal good for one or two persons.  A small, enclosed space for one or two persons was one of the greatest luxuries, a privilege of only a chosen few.

The title at the top says "Organizing planks for the private compartment."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Ghetto Police
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 28: RG-26.02.02.28- Polenschutz or Protection from Deportation to Poland is not a Privilege, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Protection from Deportation to Poland Is Not a Free Gift; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a guard standing outside in cold weather, bundled up in a heavy jacket.

The words from the painting are a direct quote from Dr. Karl Lowenstein, who insisted that being saved from deportation to Poland, or to the East, did not come as a free gift; it was, according to him, a privilege that had to be eraned by devoted performance of duty.  In the sketch we see a lonely ghetto guard, wrapped up in warm clothing, on duty on the ramparts of the fort.  In spite of Lowenstein's relentless efforts to create a perfect security unit, some of the ghetto guards were caught bartering with the Czech gendarmes, who were eager to enrich themselves by putting their hands on some of the jewelry and hard currency smuggled in by inmates.  Even before the Ghetto Guard units were dissovled, some guards were punished for assorted failings and transported to the East.

At the top of the painting, it says "Protection from Poland is not a gift."  Below the title, it says "Dr. Lowenstein's slogan 1943."  At the bottom right corner, the paintingis signed and retrospectively dated "eli 43 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Dr. Karl Löwenstein (commander of Ghettowache, Theresienstadt ghetto)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Ghetto Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Exemptions from deportations
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Living conditions in ghettos
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 29: RG-26.02.02.29- Prague is Free of Jews, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Prague Is Free of Jews; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts train cars filled with Jews being taken off to some unknown location.  They are leaving the city of Prague and crossing over the Charles Bridge.

The long train churning its way to an unknown location destination symbolizes the deportation of Jews, the last journey to the Final Solution.  Every wheel of the train is marked with a yellow Jewish star, indicating that its unwilling passengers are Jews.  The silhouette of Prague Castle is discernable in the background, the fading symbol of a lost home left behind.

The top title says "Prague is our "Zion"...Prague???" in Czech.  Across the center, it says "Prague is cleansed of Jews" in German.  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli / Terezin Ghetto 1943."

Subject/Index Terms:
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Deportation scenes
Transports
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Czech, language
Documents in Czech language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 30: RG-26.02.02.30- Prisoner's Disease, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Prisoner Disease; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  On the left is the image of a healthy man juxtaposed on the right with an image of the same man looking much thinner and run down.  Beneath him is the face of a healthy young woman that stares at her own much-changed, ballooned visage.

These differences in body changes were due to the fact that almost all women stopped their mentral cycles immediately upon arrival at the camp.  The hormonal changes caused many physical variations.  At the outset most women became bloated, but with time and protracted starvation they too came to resemble emaciated skeletons.  The abrupt hormonal dysfunction was blamed on malnutrition.  The men would lose weight because of malnutrition.  Physicians called it a ghetto disease.

The text at the top says "He loses weight...because he is hungry in the ghetto."  At the center, it says "She gains weight...because her glands do not function properly in the ghetto."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
Living conditions in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 31: RG-26.02.02.31- Return after Disinfection, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Back from Delousing--Only a Crazy Person Pays with Ghetto Money; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  In the painting, a new deportee, unfamiliar with the ghetto rules, offers a tip to an experienced ghetto inhabitant with worthless "Moses kronen" (ghetto money) for the clothes he received after delousing.

As part of the hoax of Theresienstadt being a civilized town, the Germans decided in 1942 to open a ghetto bank and issue specific currency in several denominations.  The bank notes featured Moses and the Ten Commandments and were printed in Theresienstadt.  They were signed by Jakob Edelstein, the "Elder of the Jews", or Chairman of the Jewish Council.  The currency remained in circulation even after Edelstein's deportation to Auschwitz in December 1943.  The money was of no value, and nothing could have been bought for the camp's tender, but it served the purpose of impressing the visiting Red Cross inspectors.

The title in the center says "Back from delousing--Only a 'Cvok' (crazy, in Czech slang) pays with ghetto money."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto money
Arrival at a camp
Jewish Council of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Jewish council Theresienstadt
Jakob Edelstein, Chairman of the Jewish Council in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Documents issued by the Jewish Council of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 32: RG-26.02.02.32- Rumors (Bonke) by Latrine B IV, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Rumors about the Frontlines from Latrine B-IV; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts men in latrine B-IV, exchanging rumors and stories; this is where many received their news of what was happening outside of the ghetto.

Latrines in Theresienstadt served more than one purpose.  Beyond the self-evident one, the place served as an unofficial information service center where men exchanged--in this one, unsupervised, safe place--the latest Bonkes (rumors) on the war's progress.  Latrines were also the place where inmates could finalize some barter or other illicit transaction.

At the top, the title says "Rumors."  Printed below, it says "or the latest news about the frontlines from latrine B-IV."  The sign on the wall is a rhyme, "After defecating, before eating, washing hands is not forgotten."  At the bottom right hand corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
Latrines in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 33: RG-26.02.02.33- Running Low, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

You Can See Right into the Stomach; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts three men inspecting what is left of their hidden food reserves in their barracks.

Before deportation, most inmates packed some nonperishable foods, hoping to augment the camp's rations.  All too soon those fallback stocks dwindled.  Although cooking was strictly forbidden, almost every hall had smuggled in a well-hidden electrical cooker, used by the inmates to warm up the apportioned soup or perhaps cook whatever could be found.  Many cooked weed leaves found in the corners of abandoned places and smuggled in by outside work details.  The favorite and most readily found was the common weed orache, or Lebeda, that tasted--using a great deal of imagination--somewhat like spinach.  The protracted starvation exacted a severe toil on the inmates.  All suffered consequences of malnutrition, including diarrhea, swelling, sores, night blindness, pellagra, and many other afflictions.

The top left title says "You can see right up into the stomach."  At the bottom right, it says "Packed food supplies are running out."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Starvation, ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 34: RG-26.02.02.34- Schleusst und Stiehlt, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Organizing" and Stealing Are Not the Same; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a figure depicted as a mirror image of himself engeged in Schleusst (organizing) on the left, while performing Stiehlt (stealing) from a colleague on the right.

The ghetto inmates coined their own laws of morality, firmly differentiating between "organizing" and stealing.  It was generallly accepted that "organizing" was a morally tolerable necessity required for survival.  Much worse and totally unacceptable was stealing from a fellow inmate, whose life depended on his meager rations.

The title at the top left says "Two people in the ghetto may seem to do the same thing, nevertheless it is not the same, because one is 'organizing' (channeling things) and the other is stealing."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Starvation, ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 35: RG-26.02.02.35- Senior Inmates often were Thieves, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Room Elders Are Often Mean Thieves; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  In the painting, an inmate stashes away some bread, while nearby a few loaves are ready to be divided into the meager rations.\

The Zimmeraelteste (room elder) was a person in charge of a room, responsible for the distribution of bread and the occasional spoonful of sugar.  More often than not they would pinch from the loaves they were doling out among the inmates, cutting a larger portion for themselves than they were entitled to.  Skimming another inmate's allotment of food was considered a crime of theft, for reducing an inmate's portion, which was already pathetically inadequate, directly lessened that person's chance for survival.

The title at the top says "Often room elders are mean thieves."  At the bottom right corner, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Jewish elders
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Ghetto barracks
Starvation, ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 36: RG-26.02.02.36- Six Companions, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Six Friends from Commando Zossen; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  In this painting, Erich remembers the six friends who shred the experience at Zossen construction camp with them.  They each sit on their own bunk and are looking to the side.  Name signs are attached to everyone's bunk bed.

All six of these men worked in the building detail, constructing hte secret headquarters for the high Nazi officials.  By 1944--45 the SS officers were well aware that the war was lost, and most planned for their own disappearance.

Each name on the bunk has been transcribed, top row, from left to right, "Hugo Fischer (Hufi) from Prague, barber Schade from Breslau, Fuss from Berlin."  Bottom row, from left to right, "Fest from Moravia, Reigler from Vienna, barber Paperle from Moravska, Ostrava."  At the bottom right, the text says "Six friends from 'barracks building' in Zossen Wulkow--at Fustenwalde / Berlin (August 26, 1944--February 7, 1945)."  The painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Ghetto barracks
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 37: RG-26.02.02.37- Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a female laborer carrying in wildflowers under her coat into the ghetto.  The yellow star on the young woman's jacket identifies her as a Landwirtschaft, or an agricultural worker.

The plots in which vegetable and fruits were grown were on the ramparts outside of the ghetto.  The produce was grown for the use of the SS men.  Ghetto inmates assigned to this commando were fortunate because they had a good chance of "organizing" some vegetables by hiding them under their clothes.  It was forbidden to cut or have flowers, but like all else that was forbidden, the inmates did just that.  The dreary drabness of the ghetto, where the predominating shades were brown or gray, was relieved by some green leaves or, better yet, a flower.

The text at the top says "Working in agriculture."  In the center, it says "Smuggling (under her coat) forbidden greens into the ghetto."  At the bottom, the painting is signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Smuggling, ghettos
Smuggling in the ghettos
Entrance to Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 38: RG-26.02.02.38- Sylvester 1942, New Year Eve Prophecy, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Sylvester 1942 (New Year's Eve Prophecy); artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The poem was written by Grete Schulhoff during his imprisonment in Theresienstadt.  Yellow Jewish stars and the Czechoslovakian flag compliment the narrative.

The title "Sylvester" refers to Saint Sylvester's Day, the date in the Catholic and Protestant calendars, especially in German-speaking countries, of the last day of the year and the eve of the New Year.  The origin and name of this traditional feast day associated with Pop Sylvester I (papacy, 314--335 C.E.), who is portrayed in church tradition as slaying a dragon and resurrecting its victims.  The poem is written in German.

"Children, the old year has to leave tonight, The year that brough us only grief and suffering, Particuarly for us, last year Was a year of sleepless nights.

We women from the Central office, We wrote full of vehemence every single night. We wrote many lists full of indexes Sometimes adding nine, and other times plus seven.

We wrote almost one-hundred-ten-thousand names Of brothers and sisters who went to Theresienstadt. We also write lists for some transports That unfortunately were Eastbound.

We wrote all kinds of lists Of Jews and Jewish Christians, Recently we wrote at our Superiors' order: The night-long list "Big Service Citizens Paper."

The Space Controlling department does what it wants, Transferring daily at least two hundred people, So today we can say that the departing year Was the most miserable one for us Jews.

In spite of all that, we danced and laughed Halayla Hazeh (this night)--this very night We want to be cheerful today, Though today we also miss beer and wine.

We miss good food to eat. Long ago we forgot about tasty food. Today we are glad when we have, On Sylvester, the treat of potato salad.

We will forget how all this unfolded In the course of the upcoming year, The year one thousand nine hundred forty-three, All our suffering and grief will be gone.

Among three hundred sixty-five days There is surely one about which history will say, In this month, on that day, Baruch Hashem (praise God) brought the Jews to Prague."

(Translated by Vera Schiff)

Subject/Index Terms:
Schulhoff, Grete
Jewish poetry
poetry about incarceration
Wartime poetry
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Schulhoff, Grete
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 39: RG-26.02.02.39- Terezinka - a Ghetto Disease, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Terezinka--A Ghetto Disease; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man afflicted with Terezinka running down the stairs for the men's latrines.

Terezinka was a form of paratyphoid disese epidemic to the ghetto.  Paratypoid, or "Terezinka", was a common disease in the ghetto.  Spread by a bacterium, it was so omnipresent that the symptoms were named after the ghetto.  There was no one that did not suffer repeatedly from this scourge.  This condition further weakened the inmates, who were already malnourished and had a hard time coping with repeated bouts of severe diarrhea.

The title at the top says "Terezin disease."  The sign on the door says "For men."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 43 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
Latrines in the ghettos
Living conditions in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 40: RG-26.02.02.40- The Camp Commander Ridicules, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

An SS Joke: Prisoner Breuer in the Parrot Cage; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows an SS Guard who has locked a Jewish construction worker in a parrot cage and has forced other workers to look on as he mocks him.

From August 26, 1944 to February 7, 1945, Erich Lichtblau-Leskly worked on a secret construction site in Wulkow near Berlin.  His work detail was known as Arbeitskommando Zossen.  They built an escape base for the German central authorities.  The Zossen work detail was composed of prisoners from several Nazi concentration camps, including Theresienstadt ghetto.  At the Zossen construction site, the SS commandant liked to play jokes on the prisoners and humiliate inmate Breuer in particular.  He would order him into a large parrot cage that originally housed the SS men's parrots.  This was an example of the commandant's sadistic sense of humor, a form of malicious and degrading punishment.

The title across the top says "An SS joke: prisoner Breuer in the parrot cage."  Below the title, it says "Wulkow barracks construction site."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Humiliation in the ghettos
Public humiliations
Berlin (Germany)
SS and administrative personnel, German
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 41: RG-26.02.02.41- The New Order Service, No Pushing Please, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The New Order Service, or "Please Do Not Push"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows people lined up for food distribution while a guard pushes a man and tells him not to push.

Food distribution in the ghetto was supervised by members of the new Ordungsdienst (Order Service), replacing the Ghettowache (Ghetto Guard), which was dissolved in September 1943 on German orders.  Only this time the Nazis introduced different requirements for the participants.  Those men who were deemed eligible needed to be over forty years old, and there would be only one hundred of them.  Unlike their glamorous predecessors in the paramilitary Ghetto Guard, the men of the Ordnungsdienst were not issued uniforms, and the only sign of their official function was the armband with letters O.D.  Their main duty was to ensure that the inmates did not push or take cuts in line but would wait in orderly fashion for their turns.

The title at the top left says "New Order Service."  At the top center, it says "Please be "extremely polite," no pushing!"  The text between the two men reads "Idiot / Insulting an officer!"  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retorspectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the Holocaust, 1939 -- 1945
Food rationing in ghettos, 1939 -- 1945
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 42: RG-26.02.02.42- The Operetta in Three Acts, The Ghetto Girl, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Ghetto Girl, an Operetta in Three Acts; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a an older man and woman on stage dancing and singing.

After the disbanding of the Jewish Ghetto Guard, most of the guardsmen were deported to Poland.  One of the inmates, a composer, wrote a musical, The Ghetto Girl.  The plot of the operetta would have had a happy ending; a ghetto guardsman falls in love with a lovely girl, and his love is reciprocated.  Lichtblau-Leskly's sketch contradicts this happy outcome, however, by showing the actors as a couple in their later yeras, dancing in front of a hospital entrance.  The parody in three acts reveals a macabre sense of humor, as it was written after the disbandment of the Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards).

The title at the top center says "Operetta in three acts, 'The Ghetto Girl'."  The sign at the top right says "Today (parody) performance for the elder ghetto inmates!  Second cast."  At the center, the text says "Dear little ghetto girl, give me a bit of love."  The letters of the archway to the left say "Hospital Hohenelbe."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Entertainment in the ghettos
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 43: RG-26.02.02.43- The Red Cross is Coming, Beautified Decorated and Phony, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

It Is Beautified and Decorated; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows an elderly man walking past a dentist office that has been beautified, presumably for the Red Cross visit.

Everything in the ghetto was decorated for the Red Cross visitation.  The town square that before only saw military parades had been transformed into a garden with a musical stage and performances were scheduled.  The ghetto was decorated with flowers.  Cafes were opened, and soccer games organized.  The advertisement in the window conveys a twofold message: "Keep your mouth and teeth healthy" or "Keep the mouth shut and your teeth healthy."  Given the fact that the passer-by covers his mouth, showing a confused look, the artist may well be intending to convey the second meaning.

The title at the top says "It is beautified and decorated for the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  The sign above the shop says "Repairs for dentures."  The sign in the window says "Keep your mouth shut and your teeth healthy, or keep your mouth and teeth healthy."  The sign on the door says "Repairs accepted from 8:00--16:00."  The text on the right side says "But even for the ghetto Jews (with a "flower")."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Nazi Propaganda
Nazi war propaganda
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 44: RG-26.02.02.44- The Red Cross is Coming, A Happy Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

All Sidewalks Will Be Scrubbed; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a woman washing the sidewalks while an elderly man watches.

In preparation for the arrival of the Red Cross, the inmates of Theresienstadt were forced to clean the entire ghetto.  The Nazi administration wanted to present a pristine city to the Red Cross officials as part of their efforts of international propaganda.  Along with cleaning the ghetto, inmates took part in sporting events and musical performances.

The top title says "A clean ghetto for the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  Across the center it says "All sidewalks will be scrubbed."  At the center right, the poster says "Big sports festival on the bastions: 1. Soccer match 2. Light athletics 3. Dances, Games, etc."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Nazi Propaganda
Nazi war propaganda
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 45: RG-26.02.02.45- The Red Cross is Coming, the Dining Room, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Dining Hall in the Barracks: The Ghetto Is Being "Beautified"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a dining room filled with elderly people, eating soup with flowers on the table.

The temporary opening of a dining room for the elderly was another feature staged for the Red Cross visitors.  It was accessible only to seniors whose appearance did not disclose their deprivation.  The Germans ordered several younger inmates to function as waiters.  All this was a well-staged act.  It was yet another attempt to show utmost sensitivity to the aged.  Tables were covered with white tablecloths and decorated with cut flowers.  The charade was a complete success.

At the top left corner, it says "It is shown to the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  Across the top, the title says "The dining halls in the barracks...the ghetto is being beautified...!"  At the bottom right hand corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Nazi Propaganda
Nazi war propaganda
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 46: RG-26.02.02.46- Three Kings in the Ghetto, Cook, Baker, and Pastry Baker, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Three Kings in the Ghetto: Baker, Cook, and Pastry Baker; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts the bakers and cooks of the ghetto, who were considered kings of the ghetto because they never went hungry.

The pastry bakers prepared the pastries for the German officers.  They were all required to wear yellow Jewish star patches stitched on their clothes at all times.  With the exception of the Danish Jews, this was a compulsory order for all inmates.

The title at the top says "Three 'kings' in the ghetto."  Under the title to the right it says "baker, cook, and bun baker."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 47: RG-26.02.02.47- Transport Leader Mandler Ghettoized, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Transport Leader Mandler Ghettoized and Beaten by Inmates; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts beaten Mandler, a transport dispatcher, accompanied by a ghetto guard.

Some Jews employed by the Jewish community in Prague, particularly those who worked as deportation organizers, were accused of collaboration with the Gestapo and were held in contempt.  These individuals were deported to Theresienstadt last, shortening their detention time.  Their names were never forgotten, however, as they were deeply resented.

The title in the upper left corner says "Transport leader Mandler was 'ghettoized' and beaten up."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 48: RG-26.02.02.48- Transport Sorrows, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Transport Worries; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a man worrying about what he's going to pack for his transport to the East.

There was seldom enough time to pack the few possessions one had and say good-bye to those being left behind.  The summons to join a transport was the most dreaded of orders, one that sooner or later hit most of the inmates.  All inmates feared the order to report for a transport.  In later years, inmates realized that the whispered dread was the grim reality.

The title at the top says "Enrolled in the transport to the East--only one hour before departure."  At the center right, the tag says "Transport No. Bx 1035."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed "eli [n.d.] / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Personal belongings
Jewish personal belongings
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 49: RG-26.02.02.49- Consolidated file-Leskly Photos with captions, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A collection of forty-eight works by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.

1. A Theresienstadt Poor Man's Torte

2. A Dream (Mirage)

3. A Farewell: "Until We Meet in the Mass Grave"

4. A Good Czech Gendarme

5. The Halutz (Pioneer) in the Ghetto and His Three Points

6. A Night with Her "Alone" at the Palanda Bar

7. A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread

8. Baptized Jews Are Coming

9. Competition for Potatoes

10. Death Rate: 150 Daily

11. Thou Shall Not Build in the Diaspora

12. Doctors Are Hungry Too

13. Encephalitis in the Ghetto

14. Two Carts Meet in the Ghetto

15. Every Man's Dream: To Be Alone in His Own Kumbal

16. Good Morning, Herr Doktor

17. Hambo, the Pop-Hit Singer

18. Head Count: Thou Shall Be Counted

19. Impetigo in the Ghetto

20. In Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg Barracks), Room 305

21. Jewish Anti-Semites in the Ghetto

22. Jewish Police Arrive from Holland

23. Free Time

24. Light Control

25. Motto of the Economic Department: "We Take Care of It All!"

26. The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages

27. "Organizing" Planks for a Kumbal

28. Protection from Deportation to Poland Is Not a Free Gift

29. Prague Is Free of Jews

30. Prisoner Disease

31. Back from Delousing--Only a Crazy Person Pays with Ghetto Money

32. Rumors about the Frontlines from Latrine B-IV

33. You Can See Right into the Stomach

34. "Organizing" and Stealing Are Not the Same

35. Room Elders Are Often Mean Thieves

36. Six Friends from Commando Zossen

37. Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto

38. Sylvester 1942: New Year's Eve Prophecy

39. Terezinka--A Ghetto Disease

40. An SS Joke: Prisoner Breuer in the Parrot Cage

41. The New Order Service: "No Pushing Please"

42. The Ghetto Girl, an Operetta in Three Acts

43. It Is Beautified and Decorated

44. All Sidewalks Will Be Scrubbed

45. Dining Hall in the Barracks: The Ghetto Is Being "Beautified"!

46. Three Kings in the Ghetto: Baker, Cook, and Pastry Baker

47. Transport Leader Mandler Ghettoized and Beaten by Inmates

48. Transport Worries

Subject/Index Terms:
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Immigration to Israel
mass graves
humor in the ghettos and concentration camps
Deportations from ghettos
Transports
Cigarettes in the ghettos
Privacy in the ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Dr. Karl Löwenstein (commander of Ghettowache, Theresienstadt ghetto)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Entertainment in the ghettos
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Censuses
Children in the ghettos
Disease in ghettos
Zionist activities
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Packages
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Ghetto money
Theresienstadt ghetto monetary receipts
Latrines in the ghettos
Stealing in the ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Smuggling, ghettos
Smuggling in the ghettos
Jewish poetry
poetry about incarceration
Wartime poetry
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Nazi Propaganda
Personal belongings
Jewish personal belongings
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Collection of Folder-Level 3: RG-26.02.03, First exhibitionsAdd to your cart.
This collection contains documents relating to the initial showing of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  This collection contains selected black and white photographs of Lichtblau-Leskly's artwork.  The collection also contains title cards from various exhibitions of the artwork.
Subject/Index Terms:
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-26.02.03.01- A Cheap Cake for a Birthday, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A black and white copy of A Theresienstadt Poor Man's Torte, artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts two women looking over a recipe for a torte, which sits on a table.

In spite of the terrible privation, most inmates tried to emulate normal life and mark holidays or birthdays.  The exchange of recipes was a hobby in which many inmates indulged.  Others often talked about past culinary preferences.  Food was a conversational pastime, and many loved to talk about their favorite delicacies, describing some delectable treats in great detail.

The title at the left center says "A Theresienstadt poor man's torte."  The name on the cake is "Lola."  The recipe list says "It takes 2 measures of dough, 1 cup of coffee, 1/2 spoonful of sugar, 200 grams of margarine."  The painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the Holocaust, 1939 -- 1945
Starvation, ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-26.02.03.02- A Wool Vest for a Half of Bread, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  This is a black and white scan of the painting with some text above it written in English.  The painting depicts an elderly female inmate trying to trade a cardigan in exchange for a loaf of bread.

Most of the older inmates were not able to work.  Some were assigned to indoor cleaning tasks and had no access to extra rations.  It was official ghetto policy that young people and others able to work should receive better rations than old or sick inmates.  Their condition, therefore, as well as that of sick people in the ghetto, was pitiful, and they deteriorated very rapidly.  Often the only things the elderly could use to barter for food were the clothes they still owned.

The title in the center says "A cardigan for half a loaf of bread."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the Holocaust, 1939 -- 1945
Starvation, ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-26.02.03.03- Rumors from the Front Lines, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Rumors from the War Theater; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  This painting portrays a "war correspondent," Paul Kohn, who served as a courier with the Czech gendarmes and was a reliable source of information for inmates.  The document is a black and white scan of the painting.

Inmates had no access to a source for official news, and while being kept in the dark about the world's happenings, all were extremely anxious to learn about the situation on the battlefields.  Few believed the Bonkes (rumors) about the war's progress, but all were keen to listen to every scrap of news, as their salvation depended on the Nazis' defeat.  The only inmates who could access actual information were those who worked with the Czech gendarmes, and those poeple filled in as "war correspondents."  The news that Paul Kohn reported was mostly rumors, yet he was perceived as a well-informed person.

The title at the top says "Rumors from the war theater."  On the right in the circle, it says "Comrade Paul Kohn (orderly) with the Czech Gendarme Station is a "war correspondent" for the Beth Halutz (Pioneer House) of Terezin.  The "latest news" from the front, or "bonke" (rumors)."  Behind them are Russian cities listed.  In the right hand corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Czech Gendarmerie (Theresienstadt Ghetto)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-26.02.03.04- Building the Railroad to the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Building the Railroad in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts two laborers and a guard.  The workers use picks and wheelbarrow, slugging it out in a snowfall to build the rail line.  The document is a black and white copy of the painting.

In 1942, the SS headquarters decided to build a railway extension from Bohusovice directly to Theresienstadt, right up to the very edge of the ghetto.  A commando of laborers was ordered to work on Bahnbau (railway construction).  In the summer of 1943 the railroad between the ghetto and Bohusovice was completed.  After that time all transport arrived directly at Theresienstadt.  Deportees first proceeded to the Frontier Regiment barracks, where they were searched and often robbed as an intake procedure.

The title at the top says "At the construction of the railroad to the ghetto."  At the bottom right hand corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
German Railroad and Railways
Transport trains
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Czech Gendarmerie (Theresienstadt Ghetto)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-26.02.03.05- Encephalitis in the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Encephalitis in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a physician testing an ill person by holding his fingers in front of the patient's eyes.

Encephalitis, or inflamation of the brain, was one of teh many infectious diseases that ravaged inmates of the ghetto.  Some of these diseases assumed epidemic proportions and exacted a high toll among the rundown inmates.  The epidemic of encephalitis in Theresienstadt had a relatively mild course; although many inmates came down with this infection, only few died because of it.

The title at the top says "Encephalitis in the ghetto!"  At the center right, it says "Medical eye test with finger."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospecitvely dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
medical doctors in the ghettos
medical doctors in the Holocaust
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-26.02.03.06- Encounter of the Carriages, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Two Carts Meet in ghet Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts two carts meeting: one pulled by a pair of horses and the other pulled by a Jew.  The document is a black and white copy of the painting.

In Theresienstadt everything that had to be moved was dragged by men and loaded onto hearses, which had previously been used for burial services in Jewish communities across the country.  The Jewish inmates did not have horses, so the Jewish men became beasts of burden.

The title at the top says "Encounter of the carts in the ghetto."  The text at the bottom says "a Jewish cart and an Aryan one."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Cigarettes in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-26.02.03.07- Introductory Placard, 2010Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The introductory placard written by the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust for an exhibition displaying Erich Lichtblau-Leskly's artwork.  It provides museum patrons with an extensive background of the Theresienstadt ghetto as well as the lives of Erich and Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly.
Subject/Index Terms:
Final Solution
Final Solution to the Jewish Question in Europe, 1942 -- 1945
Mass killing of Jewish population, Second World War
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)
Hamburg (Germany)
Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, annexed to Germany
Klatovy (Czech Republic)
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Privileged residents of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Nazi Propaganda
Soviet Red Army, armed forces, Soviet
Jewish Liberation
Repatriation to Israel, postwar
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-26.02.03.08- Photograph, Erich and Elsa, 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Erich and Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly.  The photograph was taken in Pisek, Czechoslovakia in 1940.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs
wartime photographs
family photographs
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-26.02.03.09- Exhibition of Lichtblau-Leskly, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

A brief catalogue of some of the artworks done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  This catalogue features paintings that were featured in an exhibition at the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.  The following artworks, which are in black and white in the document, are as follows:

1. My First Night in the Ghetto: Overcrowded

2. A View through the Window

3. Prague Is Free of Jews

4. Rumors from the War Theater

5. Jewish Police Arrive from Holland

6. A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread

7. Her Soup Business

8. The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages

9. House Arrest for the Old and Infirm

10. Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Terezin (Czechoslovakia)
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Transports
Transport trains
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Westerbork (Transit camp)
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food rations for a heavy duty worker in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Packages
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Smuggling, ghettos
Smuggling in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-26.02.03.10- Hambo, the Singer, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Hambo, the Pop-Hit Singer; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a man named Hambo singing with an accordian.  The document features a black and white copy of the painting.

Hambo was a singer that arrived with the Danish transport.  He accompanied his songs with an accordian or a violin.  A member of the privileged Danish contingent, Hambo became a great attraction in Theresienstadt.  His singing style of inter-changing falsetto into deep bass was unusual and astonishing.

The title at the top left says "Pop-hit singer Hambo."  The text below the title says "Hambo came with the Danish Transport to the Ghetto."  To the right, it says "He sang a song: I am dying, I am dying, trala lala, trala lalala."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Entertainment in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-26.02.03.11- Her Business with Soup, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Her Soup Business; artwork done with Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts an elderly woman on the street selling soup in mis-matched pots.  The document contains a black and white copy of the painting.

The almost daily staple was the so-called lentil soup, which was only water into which some powdery synthetic was dissolved.  Sick people, however, found it easier to swallow and retain the watery soup than the bread.  At the best of times the bread ration was barely edible, being made out of some strange, moldly saw-dustlike flour.

The title at the top says "Her "business" with soup (salty lentils in dusty water)."  At the right, under the title, it says "People ill with typhus exchange bread for soup."  At the center, above the soup vendor's arm, it says "Sir, are you eating your soup?"  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-26.02.03.12- In Beth Chalutzoth, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

In Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg Barracks), Room 305; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting two women sitting in their room in the ghetto barracks.  The document contains a black and white copy of the painting.

Room 305 in Beit Halutzoth (Pioneer House), officially the Hamburg barracks for women, was home for Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly and twenty-five other Jewish women.  The halls were overcrowded, and the three-tier bunks were always jammed.  The Halutzoth marked every Friday evening, observing the arrival of Sabbath with Oneg Shabbat.  The women would sing Hebrew songs and learn to speak Hebrew.  The Halutzoth were arden Zionists; their dream of settling in Palestine gave them purpose.

The title at the top right says "In Beth halutzoth, "Hamburg barracks," Room no. 305."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Zionistic politics
Zionist activities
Music in the ghettos
Immigration to Israel
Immigration to British Mandate of Palestine
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-26.02.03.14- Title Cards with Translations, 2008Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This document contains title cards from the original exibition of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  The cards feature the original text as well as the translations into English.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-26.02.03.15- Title Cards, 2, 2007Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This document contains title cards used for the exhibition of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  Each title card contains the title of the painting, a brief description of the painting, and the date of when the original painting was created.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-26.02.03.16- Exhibit sizing and source information, 2007Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This document contains sizing information about artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  This document was created in preparation for an exhibition of Lichtblau-Leskly's work at the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-26.02.03.17- Advertisement, Portraiture of Ghetto Life, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The document contains an advertisement for an exhibition of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly's artwork.  The exhibition was presented by the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.  The advertisement features a black and white copy of the painting Ghettoized: Placards from the Ghetto Theresienstadt.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-26.02.03.18- Exhibit Title Page, 2, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This document contains the exhibit title page for the artwork exhibition of Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  The exhibition was presented by the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.  The title page contains a black and white copy of the painting Ghettoized: Placards from the Ghetto Theresienstadt.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 18: RG-26.02.03.19- Prospective exhibition, Prague is Free of Jews, 2008Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

This document contains a collection of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  These pieces were put together as a prospective exhibition presented by the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.  The paintings featured are:

1. Prague Is Free of Jews

2. My First Night in the Ghetto: Overcrowded

3. Rumors from the War Theater

4. Building the Railroad to the Ghetto

5. A Theresienstadt Poor Man's Torte

6. A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread

7. Encephalitis in the Ghetto

8. Two Carts Meet in the Ghetto

9. Hambo, the Pop-Hit Singer

10. Her Soup Business

11. In Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg Barracks), Room 305

12. The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages

13. Shared Joy Is Double Joy

14. Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto

15. Sylvester 1942: New Year's Eve Prophecy

16. Terezinka--A Ghetto Disease

17. House Arrest for the Old and Infirm

Subject/Index Terms:
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Transport trains
Transports
Ghetto barracks
Privacy in the ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food rations for a heavy duty worker in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Disease in ghettos
medical doctors in the ghettos
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Entertainment in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Packages
Smuggling, ghettos
Smuggling in the ghettos
Jewish poetry
poetry about incarceration
Latrines in the ghettos
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 19: RG-26.02.03.20- Ten prospective exhibits, 2009Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

This document contains ten prospective paintings to be presented in an exhibition of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly.  The document includes a brief description as well as a black and white copy of each painting.  The paintings featured are:

1. My First Night in the Ghetto: Overcrowded

2. A View through the Window

3. Prague Is Free of Jews

4. Rumors from the War Theater

5. Jewish Police Arrive from Holland

6. A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread

7. Her Soup Business

8. The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages

9. House Arrest for the Old and Infirm

10. Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Transports
Transport trains
Westerbork (Transit camp)
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food rations for a heavy duty worker in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Packages
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Smuggling, ghettos
Smuggling in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 20: RG-26.02.03.21- Permit Stamp for 10 kilo Packages, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a young man who has just received a package.  The document contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

In the ghetto, it was not an ordinary thing to receive a package from the outside world.  In Theresienstadt, it was possible to get food parcels from family members and friends who lived in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.  Relatives had to get a permit stamp.  Having obtained such a stamp, they could dispatch a gift parcel directed to the post office in the ghetto.  Notwithstanding, only few inmates received 10-kilo packages from families or friends.

The title at the top says "Permit stamp for 10 kilogram parcels from friends and relatives."  At the center right, in the postage stamp, it says "Theresienstadt."  At the center right, below the stamp, it says "Only few received parcels."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Packages
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Bohemia and Moravia (Czechoslovakia: Region)
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, 1939 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 21: RG-26.02.03.22- Shared Joy is Double Joy, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Shared Joy Is Double Joy; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts one man who has received a parcel and is carrying it away, and the box is losing some of its contents.  Behind him another inmate eagerly picks up the droppings.

"Shared Joy Is Double Joy" was the slogan of the parcel post, meant to remind those who were fortunate enough to receive a parcel that they should share their good luck with their less-fortunate fellow inmates.  Most inmates--with the exception of the Danish Jews--were not receiving food parcels.  Therefore every scrap of food was eagerly picked up.

At the top, the smaller writing says "10-kilogram packages are arriving--(with the "permit stamps")."  The title across the center says Shared joy is a double joy, or shared joy doubles joy (slogan of the parcel post)."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1945 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Packages
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Starvation, ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Holocaust-related art
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 22: RG-26.02.03.23- Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a young woman coming through the entrance gates of the ghetto with flowers smuggled under her jacket.
Subject/Index Terms:
Entrance to Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia
Smuggling, ghettos
Smuggling in the ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 23: RG-26.02.03.24- New Year’s Eve Prophecy, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Sylvester 1942: New Year's Eve Prophecy; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting is a decorative display of a poem by the same title, written by Grete Schulhoff.  The document contains a black and white copy of the original painting, as well as a translation for a section of the poem.

This poem was written by Grete Schulhoff, one of Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly's roommates in Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg barracks) at Theresienstadt.  Erich Lichtblau-Leskly included the 1942 typescript in his sketchbook.  The title "Sylvester" refers to Saint Sylvester's Day, the date in the Catholic and Protestant calendars, especially in German-speaking countries, of the last day of the year and the eve of the New Year.  The origin and name of this traditional feast day is associated with Pope Sylvester I, who is portrayed in church tradition as slaying a dragon and resurrecting its victims.

Subject/Index Terms:
Schulhoff, Grete
Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly
Jewish poetry
poetry about incarceration
Wartime poetry
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Schulhoff, Grete
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 24: RG-26.02.03.25- Terezinka, A Ghetto Disease, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Terezinka--A Ghetto Disease; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts an older man in the barracks rushing down the stairs to make it to the men's latrine.  The document contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Paratyphoid, or "Terezinka", was a common disease in the ghetto.  Spread by a bacterium, it was so omnipresent that the symptoms were named after the ghetto.  Thousands of Jews suffered from severe diarrhea, which further weakened the inmates, who were already malnourished.  Many inmates could not run fast enough to reach the latrines and thus soiled themselves.

Subject/Index Terms:
Latrines in the ghettos
Ghetto barracks
Disease in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 25: RG-26.02.03.26- The Chaluz, 1945--1949Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The Halutz (Pioneer) in his Ghetto and His Three Points; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly while imprisoned in Theresienstadt.  The file contains a close up of the original painting, focusing on the sketch of a man Lichtblau-Leskly names Comrade Kurt Kartacek, a Hebrew teacher in the Terezin ghetto.
Subject/Index Terms:
Education in the ghettos
Hebrew education
Zionist activities
Zionistic politics
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 26: RG-26.02.03.27- The Red Cross is Coming, A Happy Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

House Arrest for the Old and Infirm; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a woman scrubbing the sidewalk while an impossibly large person and two elderly people watch her from a window.  The document contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

On the Red Cross commission route, the ground floors were vacated and the elderly ghetto in mates were relocated there.  Their rooms for the time being were furnished with decent beds, tables, wardrobes, and chairs.  Erich Lichtblau-Leskly called this German farce "house arrest for the old and infirm."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Disease in ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
German, language
Documents in German language
English, language
Documents in English language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Collection of Folder-Level 4: RG-26.02.04, Lichtblau Collection, ghetto period, 1942--1949Add to your cart.
The folder contains original pieces of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly while he was imprisoned at Theresienstadt.
Subject/Index Terms:
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Phenomenon of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-26.02.04.01- A Transport Aid, 1945--1949Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Transport Aid; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Czechoslovakian postwar period.  The painting shows an elderly woman carrying her bags while another man, probably a ghetto guard, helps her with other bags.

Characteristic of many of Lichtblau-Leskly's works from this period, this piece is reconstructed from an earlier fragment with the addition of the text.  Some young men were assigned to help the elderly who were about to be deported to the East.  It was their duty to take care of the luggage, and to assist them in boarding the train.  Most of the luggage was not loaded onto the train, but left on the platform.

The title at the top says "The Transport Aid."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Transport trains
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Deportations from ghettos
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-26.02.04.02- Arrival of the Jews from Denmark in [Terezin Spa]., 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Arrival of Danish Jews at "Terezin Spa"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting depicts a group of Danish Jews arriving at the ghetto.  They are met by a Jewish transport aid from the Aid Service.

A group of well-dressed, middle-class Danish Jews arrive under the impression that they were about to enter a resort, or a spa.  Lichtblau-Leskly, in a joking manner, changes the name of the ghetto from Terezin ghetto to Terezinbad, the Terezin Spa.

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Deportation of Danish Jews
Prisoner luggage upon arrival at a concentration camp
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-26.02.04.03- Dining Room. It was shown to the gentlemen of the Red Cross, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Dining Hall in the Barracks: The Ghetto Is Being "Beautified"!; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting depicts two elderly women seated at the dining hall while a man appears to be serving them.

The temporary opening of a dining room for the elderly was another feature staged for the Red Cross visitors.  It was accessible only to seniors whose appearance did not disclose their deprivation.  The Germans ordered several younger inmates to function as waiters.  Tables were covered with white tablecloths and decorated with cut flowers.  All this was a well-staged act.

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
Nazi Propaganda
Ghetto barracks
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-26.02.04.04- Do not Build in the Goles (Goluth – Diaspora), 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Thou Shall Not Build in the Diaspora; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting depicts a man being deported to the East while the other attempts to build a Kumbal (cubbyhole).

Despite the ever-changing conditions in Theresienstadt, most inmates tried to improve their lot by upgrading the tiny spaces allotted to them.  Kumbals were hammered together with found planks and nails, often covred with blankets or sheets.  These were hewn in attics, some corners, or even larger closets.  Though tiny in size, Kumbals were a great treasure, coveted and envied, owned by only a chosen few.

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
Deportations from ghettos
Deportations to concentration camps
Deportation to concentration camps
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-26.02.04.05- Doctors are Hungry too., 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Doctors Are Hungry Too; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting shows a cook or baker being brought into a doctor's office before other patients.

Widespread hunger gave an edge to the cooks and bakers at all times.  They were perceived as the unofficial aristocrazy of the ghetto.  There was no service in the ghetto that they could not access with greater ease.  Food was the currency that removed many obstacles that others had a hard time surmounting.

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
medical doctors in the ghettos
medical doctors in the Holocaust
Medical care in the ghettos
Preferential treatment in the ghettos
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-26.02.04.06- Good Morning Herr Doktor, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Good Morning, Herr Doktor; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting depicts members of the Ghetto Guard saluting their commander, Dr. Karl Lowenstein.

An unarmed united, the Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards) was formed in December 1941.  Their mandate was to maintain order within the ghetto.  In August 1943, perhaps concerned about a possible uprising by this well-trained unit, the Nazis dissolved the Ghetto Guards and its members were included in the first transport to the East.

Subject/Index Terms:
Dr. Karl Löwenstein (commander of Ghettowache, Theresienstadt ghetto)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-26.02.04.07- Halutz in the Ghetto, 1945--1949Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Halutz (Pioneer) in the Ghetto and His Three Points; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Czechoslovakian postwar period.  The painting shows a man balancing on a wire over the ghetto with a portrait of a young man in the corner.

According to Lichtblau-Leskly, the Halutz (Pioneer) must observe three very important points that will help him hold his own and maintain equilibrium.  These are to learn Hebrew, to visit the sick, and to celebrate Oneg Shabbat (Comrade Kartacek, the Hebrew teacher, features prominently here).  Jews from many European countries were incarcerated in Theresienstadt.  Members of the Zionist movement were trained in leadership and organization of communal life.  They were supposed to set an example for the rest of the inmates.  Many lived together in rooms called Beit Halutz (for men) and Beit Halutzoth (for women).  They were expected to live up to the high standards of Zionist ethics.  The first wave of Jews in Theresienstadt were predominantly comprised of prior members of the Zionist movement in Prague.

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Zionist activities
Zionism, Jewish national movement
Hebrew education
German, language
Documents in German language
Hebrew, language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-26.02.04.08- Head Count, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Head Count: Thou Shall Be Counted; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting shows people letting elderly people and children going first to be counted in the ghetto census.

On November 11, 1943, the SS administration unexpectedly ordered a "census count" of the ghetto population.  All forty thousand ghetto inhabitants were forced to stay outside the camp on the former army drill grounds from the early morning to the late afternoon.  Lichtblau-Leskly recalls that the Jewish Council attempted to conduct the head count in as orderly a manner as possible, allowing children and elderly people to pass the census first.

Subject/Index Terms:
Censuses
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Children in the ghettos
Jewish council Theresienstadt
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Jewish Council of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-26.02.04.09- Jewish Antisemite in the Ghetto, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Jewish Anti-Semites in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  Lichtblau-Leskly uses a bird with a yellow star on its chest, defecating in its nest, to symbolize those Jews who exhibited anti-Semitism toward their fellow inmates in order to be favored by the Nazis.

Theresienstadt's inmate population was very diverse, and aobut ten percent of the inmates did not consider themselves to be Jews.  Their misfortune came about by having one Jewish parent or grandparent, while they had long ago renounced any affiliation with their Jewish roots.  Accordingly, they had little in common with rest of the Jewish inhabitants.  Yet, according to the Nuremberg racial law, they qualified as Jews.  Among the many assimilated Jews of Europe were also some self-hating individuals who had no sense of a shared Jewish destiny.  Some were deeply resentful of being identified as Jews.  Many were one-time ardent German patriots, often anti-Semites who felt doubly betrayed and bitter about being forced to share the destiny of the doomed.

Subject/Index Terms:
Antisemitic satire
Antisemitism
Anti-Semitism in the ghettos
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-26.02.04.10- Night Quietness in Beth Chalutz (Hannover Barracks), 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Night Silence in Beth Halutz (Hannover Barracks); artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting shows a man playing chess in the barracks while another man watches.

The Halutzim (Pioneers), members of the Zionist movemtn, succeeded in living mostly together in room 73A, the attic quarters in Hannover barracks.  The inmates found little nightly repose, for the barracks were vermin-infested, and their bites deprived the men of much-needed sleep.

A the top right, it says "Night Silence" in Czech.  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Czech, language
Documents in Czech language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-26.02.04.11- One Can Look into the Stomach. The Brought in Food Reserves are Running Low, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

You Can See Right into the Stomach; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting shows three men in the ghetto barracks examining their remaining hidden food reserve.

Before deportation, most inmates packed some nonperishable foods, hoping to augment the camp's rations.  All too soon those fallback stock dwindled.  Although cooking was strictly forbidden, almost every hall had smuggled in a well-hidden electrical cooker, used by the inmates to warm up the apportioned soup or perhaps cook whatever could be found.  The protracted starvation exacted a severe toll on the inmates.  All suffered consequences of malnutrition, including diarrhea, swelling, sores, night blindness, pellagra, and many other afflictions.

Subject/Index Terms:
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-26.02.04.12- Planks [Šlojs in Czech] for a Kumbal [a private closet or compartment)., 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Organizing" Planks for a Kumbal; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting shows a Jewish guard watching as two Jewish inmates take planks of wood to build a Kumbal.

In the ghetto barracks, there was not a chance of finding a spot for even a modicum of privacy.  A small, enclosed space for one or two persons, or a Kumbal, was one of the greatest luxuries, a privilege of only a chosen few.  Regular ghetto barracks often had three levels of bunks and in search of privacy, everyone tried to get some boards for building a Kumbal good for one or two persons.

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Privacy in the ghettos
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-26.02.04.13- Schleusst und Stiehlt is not the same, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Organizing" and Stealing Are Not the Same; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting shows a man "organizing" and stealing the food rations of the ghetto.

The ghetto inmates coined their own laws of morality, firmly differentiating between "organizing" and stealing.  It was generally accepted that "organizing" was a morally tolerable necessity required for survival.  Much worse and totally unacceptable was stealing from a fellow inmate, whose life depended on his meager rations.

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-26.02.04.14- Terezinka, a Ghetto Disease, 1945--1949Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Terezinka--A Ghetto Disease; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Czechoslovakian postwar period.  The painting shows a man in the ghetto barracks rushing to the men's latrine.

Terezinka was a form of paratyphoid disease endemic to the ghetto.  Spread by a bacterium, it was so omnipresent that the symptoms were named after the ghetto.  Many inmates could not run fast enough to reach the latrines and thus soiled themselves.

The title at the top says "Terezin disease."  The sign on the door says "For men."  The inscription on the right says "Thousands of Jews suffered from severe diarrhea" in Czech.  In the right corner, the painting has been signed and dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Latrines in the ghettos
Disease in ghettos
Ghetto barracks
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
German, language
Documents in German language
Czech, language
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-26.02.04.15- The Light Control, 1945--1949Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Light Control; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Czechoslovakian postwar period.  The painting shows a light guard scolding a man who has installed an illegal light.

With only one lightbulb per room, inmates installed illegal temporary electrical lines to be able to read in the upper bunks.  This transgression was subject to severe punishment.  Like all else in the ghetto, skirting the rules was risky.  The sudden "light controls," or inspections, were unpredictable, and if an illegal installation was found, the violator was severely punished, likely to be enrolled in the next transport to the East.

Subject/Index Terms:
Illegal activities in the ghettos
Books in the ghettos
Ghetto barracks
Restrictions in ghettos, 1939 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-26.02.04.16- The Operetta in Three Acts, the Ghetto Girl, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Ghetto Girl, an Operetta in Three Acts; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The painting depicts two elderly people performing a song and dance on a stage.

One of the inmates, a composer, wrote a musical, The Ghetto Girl.  The parody in three acts reveals a macabre sense of humor, as it was written after the disbandment of the Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards), most of whose members were deported to the East.

At the center, it says "Dear little ghetto girl, give me a bit of love."

Subject/Index Terms:
Entertainment in the ghettos
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-26.02.04.17- Three Kings in the Ghetto. Cook, Baker, and Pastry Baker, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Three Kings in the Ghetto: Baker, Cook, and Pastry Baker; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Ghetto period.  The document shows cut up pieces of the painting, showing a baker, a cook, and a pastry baker.

The pastry bakers prepared the pastries for the German officers.  Note that even teh cooks and bakers had to wear the yellow Jewish star patch stitched on their clothes at all times.  Amid the starving multitudes, those who handled food were perceived to be the true aristocrats.

Subject/Index Terms:
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Collection of Folder-Level 5: RG-26.02.05, Lichtblau Artworks in black and white photography, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.
This folder contains a collection of black and white photographs of artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.
Subject/Index Terms:
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Phenomenon of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-26.02.05.01- A Baptized Jew is a Jew, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Baptized Jews Are Coming; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a priest, a nun, two women in folk costumes, and a man in typical Austrian lederhosen, all with yellow Jewish stars for faces.  Most are wearing a cross as well.

Nazi racial laws determined who was a Jew and who was an Aryan.  Having two Jewish-born grandparents would be enough to be classified as Jewish, even if the family had been Christian for two generations.

The title across the top says "Ghettoized."  Across the center in the wavy ribbon says "Baptized Jews are coming, baptized Jews."  The text in the upper right hand corner says "Clothes make the man / Stars make the Jews / Adolf Hitler."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi racial laws
Nazi racial theory
Racial ideology
Laws of German racial purity
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-26.02.05.02- A Cheap Cake for Birthday, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Theresienstadt Poor Man's Torte; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows two women sharing a recipe for a cake, or torte.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The exchange of recipes was a hobby in which many inmates indulged.  Others often talked about past culinary preferences.  Food was a conversational pastime, and many loved to talk about their favorite delicacies, describing some delectable treats in great detail.

At left, the title says "A Theresienstadt poor man's torte."  On the torte, it says "Lola."  The recipe reads "It takes 2 measures of dough, 1 cup of coffee, 1/2 spoonful of sugar, 200 grams of margarine."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli March 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-26.02.05.03- A Child's Dream, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Mischlinge Dream about Saint Nicholas and the Easter Bunny; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a young girl dreaming about Saint Nicholas and the Easter Bunny.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The "Law for the protection of German Blood and Honor" (known as the Nuremberg Laws) determined that children born from Jewish-gentile marriages were Jewish.  On September 15, 1935, Nazi Germany passed restrictive anti-Jewish legislation defining who was a Jew.  These laws denied citizenship to Jews and forbade intermarriages.  The laws were expanded to Nazi-occupied countries and territories, and their implementation was a matter of life and death to individuals.  Many Mischlinge, or children of mixed heritage, were acculturated to Christian customs and were often resentful and unhappy about being perceived as Jews.  With this work, Lichtblau-Leskly emphasizes simple truth, that children are children.  They all expect holiday gifts, especially if they were used to them before the war, no matter what the denomination of their parents.

The title at the left says "Dream of Saint Nicholas and the Easter Bunny by children of mixed marriages."  At the center, Saint Nicholas says to the Easter Bunny "Dear, Mr. Easter Bunny, going to Theresienstadt?  Only with the star," or "don't forget the yellow star."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish holidays
Christian holidays
Jewish-Gentile relations
Jewish-Gentile Marriage
Mischlinge, children of Jewish-Gentile marriages
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-26.02.05.04- A Clean Ghetto for the Gentlemen from the Red Cross, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

All Sidewalks Will Be Scrubbed; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a woman washing the sidewalks in preparation for the arrival of the Red Cross while an elderly man watches.

In preparation for the visit from the Red Cross, the SS guards made all inmates clean and "beautify" the ghetto.  Zdenek Lederer writes about these last hours of the embellishments: "Even the pavements of the streets which the commission was to traverse were scrubbed from four o'clock in the morning on the memorable June 23."

At the top, it says "A clean ghetto for the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  Across the top, the title says "All sidewalks will be scrubbed."  At the center right, on the poster, it says "Big sports festival on the bastions: 1. Soccer match 2. Light athletics 3. Dances, Games, etc."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Czechoslovakian Red Cross
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-26.02.05.05- A Dream, A Home for Weary Halutsim, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Dream (Mirage); artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man dreaming about the promised land while sleeping in the ghetto.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The last prewar Aliyah (return to Zion, or emigration to Palestine), known as the Fifth Aliyah, ended in 1939.  Its peak corresponds to 1933--36.  After 1936 increasing British restrictions made immigration to Palestine almost completely out of reach except for small groups of selected Jews.  Notwithstanding, primary Aliyah had since become illegal and immigration that followed was referred as Aliyah Bet (secondary immigration).  During the Second World War and its aftermath, and until Israel achieved statehood in 1948, Aliyah Bet was the main form of Jewish immigration to Palestine.

At the center right, on the wall, it says "Nursing home for weary Halutzim (Pioneers) of the 6th Aliyah (emigration to Israel)."  At the top right, under the portrait, it says "Pioneer Tribes / Dr. Walter Wiener."  At the bottom right, the title says "A dream (mirage)."  At the bottom right, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Immigration to Israel
Immigration to British Mandate of Palestine
Palestine, British Mandate Territory (1918--1948)
Zionist activities
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-26.02.05.06- A Farewell, See You again in the Mass Grave, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Farewell: "Until We Meet in the Mass Grave"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a young man being deported to the East saying goodbye to an elderly man in the ghetto hospital.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

With this piece, Lichtblau-Leskly comments that in 1943 only a few really believed the mind-boggling truth: that we had reached the end of the road.  Many chose to interpret such expressions only as grim, macabre humor.

The title at the top says "A Farewell...until we meet again in the mass grave..."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Ghetto Terezin."

Subject/Index Terms:
humor in the ghettos and concentration camps
mass graves
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Deportations to concentration camps
Deportations from ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-26.02.05.07- A Good Czech Gendarme, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Good Czech Gendarme; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a Czech gendarme smoking a cigarette while two Jewish inmates peek around a corner to inhale the smoke.

Some Czech gendarmes were kinder than others.  Those who were compassionate would on occasion throw away a large cigarette butt (spacky), fully aware that a Jew would pick it up.  In Theresienstadt inmates did not receive cigarette rations and those who smoked were often willing to forgo bread even when starving and barter it for a cigarette butt.  Lichtblau-Leskly seemed to feel that the gendarmes were often kind people, treating Jews well.

At the top left, the title says "He often casts away large cigarette butts." At the bottom left, it says "a good gendarme."  At the bottom right, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Cigarettes in the ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Czech Gendarmerie (Theresienstadt Ghetto)
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-26.02.05.08- A Halutz in the Ghetto and his three points, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Halutz (Pioneer) in the Ghetto and His Three Points; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man balancing on a wire over the ghetto with a portrait of a man in the distance.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

According to Lichtblau-Leskly, the Halutz (Pioneer) must observe three very important points that will help him hold his own and maintain equilibrium.  These are to learn Hebrew, to visit the sick, and to celebrate Oneg Shabbat (Comrade Kartacek, the Hebrew teacher features prominently here).  In the background is an image of the dream of all Zionists: a vision of a Holy Land.  The Halutz was never to lose sight of his return to Zion.  Jews from many European countries were incarcerated in Theresienstadt Members of the Zionist movement were trained in leadership and organization of communal life.  They were supposed to set an example for the rest of the inmates for the rest of the inmates.  They were expected to live up to the high standards of Zionist ethics.

In the circle on the left, it says "Hebrew," in Hebrew letters and "study."  In the right circle, it says "One ration of sugar and margarine for the ill comrades."  At the circle at the inmates' feet, it says "Position (the right balance)."  At the left, the title says "The Pioneer in the ghetto and his three points."  Below the portrait, it says "Kartacek, Hebrew teacher."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Hebrew education
Zionist activities
Zionistic politics
Immigration to Israel
Immigration to British Mandate of Palestine
German, language
Documents in German language
Hebrew, language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-26.02.05.09- A Night with Her Alone at the Bar Palanda, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Night with Her "Alone" at the Palanda Bar; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man leaning out of a Kumbal, winking suggestively.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

"Palanda" is a famous Czech restaurant.  In Erich Lichtblau-Leskly's room there was an empty top bunk that was enclosed by some planks and sheets so it afforded some seclusion.  Many couples took great risks in arranging some private time with their beloved.  Lichtblau-Leskly recalled that in some rooms where a "palanda" had been built schedules had been set up for such visitation.  There were few moments in an inmate's life that infused him or her with hope or joy, and one of those was spending private time with the special, significant person in his or her life.  Therefore, these moments were cherished.

The title at the top says "A night with HER "alone" at the Palanda Bar."  In the right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-26.02.05.10- A wool-vest for a half of bread, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A Cardigan for Half a Loaf of Bread; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows an elderly woman bartering with a young woman with food.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

It was official ghetto policy that young people and others able to work should receive better rations than old or sick inmates.  Most of the older inmates could not work.  Some were assigned to indoor cleaning tasks and had no access to extra rations.  Their condition, therefore, as well as that of sick people in the ghetto, was pitiful, and they deteriorated very rapidly.  Often the only things that elderly could use to barter for food were the clothes they still owned.

The title at the top says "A cardigan for half a loaf of bread."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Additional food rations for the heavy works in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food rations for a heavy duty worker in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-26.02.05.11- Arrival of the Jews from Denmark to Terezin, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Arrival of Danish Jews at "Terezin Spa"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows Jews from Denmark arriving at the ghetto.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

A group of well-dressed, middle-class Jews from Denmark arrive in Theresienstadt, looking extremely trepedacious about their whereabouts.  The Jews from Denmark did not wear yellow Jewish stars and had arrived at the ghetto under the impression that they were being taken to a spa, which Lichtblau-Leskly cleverly named "Terezin Spa."

At the right, the title says "Arrival of the Jews from Denmark to "Terezin Spa"."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation of Danish Jews
Transports
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-26.02.05.12- Bonke, Rumors from the Front-lines, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Rumors from the War Theater; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man relaying news while other men around him listen intently.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Inmates had no access to a source for official news, and while being kept in the dark about the world's happenings, all were extremely anxious to learn about the situation on the battlefields.  Few believed the Bonkes (rumors) about the war's progress, but all were keen to listen to every scrap of news, as their salvation depended on the Nazis' defeat.  The only inmates who could access actual information were those who worked with the Czech gendarmes, and those people filled in as "war correspondents."  This painting portrays a "war correspondent," Paul Kohn, who served as a courier with the Czech gendarmes and thus seemed to be a valuable source.  Most of the news was rumor, yet he was perceived as a well-informed person.

The title at the top says "Rumors from the war theater."  At the right, inside the cirle, it says "Comrade Paul Kohn (orderly) with the Czech Gendarme Station is a "war correspondent" for the Beth Halutz (Pioneer House) of Terezin.  The "latest news" from the front, or "bonke" (rumors)."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Czech Gendarmerie (Theresienstadt Ghetto)
Rumors in the Ghettos
Ghetto barracks
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-26.02.05.13- Building a Railroad to the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Building the Railroad to the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts two laborers and a guard building a rail line in the snow.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

In 1942, the SS headquarters decided to build a railway extension from Bohusovice directly to Theresienstadt, right up to the very edge of the ghetto.  Moreover dispatching the future deportation from the ghetto to the East would be much simpler if the trains could transit from the ghetto.  A commando of laborers was ordered to work on Bahnbau (railway construction).  The first train to use the railway extension arrived in June 1943.

At the top, the title says "At the construction of the railroad to the ghetto."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transport trains
German Railroad and Railways
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-26.02.05.14- Coffin Factory, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Coffin Factory; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a woman making coffins in the ghetto.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The hall in which the coffin factory was located was a former riding school.  Waste wood or scraps from the fabrication of the coffins were used for fuel in the winter of 1944.  Old people were allowed to use these scraps for warming their barracks.  To the right in this picture is the same character shown in many of Lichtblau-Leskly's works.

At the top, the title says "From the coffin production, wood scraps for heating in winter 1944."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1945."

Subject/Index Terms:
death of family members
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-26.02.05.15- Cook and cleaning crew is a good catch in the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Cook and the Cleaning Girl Make a Good Match in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting depicts a bride and groom standing beneath the chuppah.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Men who worked as cooks or bakers were very desirable partners in the ghetto, where hunger ruled supreme.  Weddings were possible in Theresienstadt, where several rabbi-inmates were willing to officiate at those ceremonies that were permitted by the Nazi commandant.  Some couples married under the false promise that married couples about to be deported would be allowed to stay together on arriving in the East.  It goes without saying that this was a blatant lie; most did not even die together.

The title at the top right says "Cook and girl from a cleaning detail are a good match in the ghetto."  Below, in smaller lettering, it says "Yes, love goes through the stomach."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish wedding ceremonies
Jewish Marriage
Chuppah
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-26.02.05.16- Death Rate, 150 Daily, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Death Rate: 150 Daily; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows the ghetto hospital where many elderly people are lying in bed.  One nurse helps an elderly woman walk.  The fail contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

In 1942 the number of deaths averaged about 4,000 persons a month.  In 1943 the mortality rates in the ghetto began to rise as a result of starvation or malnutrition, lack of hygiene or medical help, as well as subhuman living conditions.  According to Raul Hilberg, a total of 33,456 people died in the ghetto.  Every morning the corpses were collected and thrown on a hearse, helter-skelter, and dragged to the crematorium.  The inmates were required to pull the carts.

At the bottom right, the title says "Death rate: 150 daily."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
Disease in ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-26.02.05.17- Do not Build in the Diaspora, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Thou Shall Not Build in the Diaspora; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows one man on a ladder attempting to build a Kumbal while another man passes with luggage, going to be deported to the East.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The lack of privacy in the ghetto was such that many tried to build cubbyholes, or tiny nooks, under the roof or in an attic or some corner--whatever spot might lend itself to hammering a few planks together to allow for some privacy, a place to be alone.  Such a precious, miniature, private spot made with boarded partitions were called a KumbalKumbals were hammered together with found planks and nails, often covered with blankets or sheets.  Though tiny in size, Kumbals were a great treasure, coveted and envied, owned by only a chosen few.  Despite the ever-changing conditions in Theresienstadt, most inmates tried to improve their lot by upgrading the tiny spaces allotted to them.

The title at the top says "Thou shalt not build "in the Disapora"!"  In the center, it says "In the transport to the East."  The tag around the man's neck says "CY 514."  On the bag, it says "Josef Israel Kohn / CY 514."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 43 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Deportations from ghettos
Deportation to concentration camps
Deportations to concentration camps
Privacy in the ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 18: RG-26.02.05.18- Doctors are Hungary Too, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Doctors Are Hungry Too; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a cook or baker going into a doctor's office before two other sick in mates.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Widespread hunger gave an edge to the cooks and bakers at all times.  They were perceived as the unofficial aristocracy of the ghetto.  There was no service in the ghetto that they could not access with greater ease.  Food was the currency that removed many obstacles that others had a hard time surmounting.

The title at the top says "Because doctors are also hungry, a cook is always prioritized."  At the right, the sign on the door says "Receiving hours from 9-12" in Austrian German.  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Disease in ghettos
ghetto hospital
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 19: RG-26.02.05.19- Encounter of the Carriages- Aryan and Jewish Carriages, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Two Carts Meet in the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a Jewish and Aryan carriage meeting in the snow.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

In Theresienstadt everything that had to be moved was dragged by men and loaded into hearses, which had previously been used for burial services in Jewish communities across the country.  They did not have horses, so the Jewish men became beasts of burden.

The title at the top says "Encounter of the carts in the ghetto."  At the bottom, in the center, it says "a Jewish cart and an Aryan one."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Cigarettes in the ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 20: RG-26.02.05.20- Everyone's dream-Privacy in his own Kumbal (closet), 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Every Man's Dream: To Be Alone in His Own Kumbal; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man sleeping in a carved out cubby in a building in the ghetto.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Privacy was only possible for the owner of a so-called Kumbal.  These comparments, carved out of attics, closets, and corners, took about eight square feet.  Usually, there were three walls made of stolen boards, nailed together, and covered with sheets and blankets.

At the top left, the title says "Every man's dream: to be alone in his own cubbyhole...Yes, a man with a cubbyhole is better off!" At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 21: RG-26.02.05.21- Exclusion from the Transport, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Exclusion from the Transport; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows an ill inmate being carried off while others wait for transport to the East.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Sometimes scarlet fever came at the right time.  The Theresienstadt ghetto was constantly ravaged by epidemics, scarlet fever being one of them.  The Germans, fearful of contagious diseases, ordered inmates who contracted scarlet fever be placed in an isolated ward for six weeks.  Instead of being deported, one would be removed from the transport and taken to one of the medical wards.  Chances of recovery were always slim, but for the time being an imminent end was postponed.

The title at the top says "Eliminated from the transport to the East."  At the bottom left, it says "And scarlet fever sometimes came at the right time."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Transports
Excuses from transports
Exemptions from deportations
Disease in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 22: RG-26.02.05.22- Father is Stealing, Son is Stealing, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

As the Father "Organizes," so the Child "Organizes"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a father and son stealing food from another inmate.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Much that the inmates brought with them to Theresienstadt was taken away from them immediately on arrival.  Children saw their parents "organizing" and tried to do it, too.  In camp, "organizing" was an important means for survival.  It was perceived as existential necessity, while theft, defined as robbing another inmate, was rejected adn seen as a profoundly immoral deed.

At the center, it says "As the father 'organizes,' so the child 'organizes'."  The painting is not signed or dated.

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Children in the ghettos
Children, starving in the ghettos
Starvation, ghettos
Starvation in the ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 23: RG-26.02.05.23- Ghettoized, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Ghettoized: Placards from the Ghetto Theresienstadt; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows the entrance gate to Theresienstadt.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The dominant feature of this painting is the word Ghettoisiert ("ghettoized," or confined to the ghetto), a word that was stamped into the identity card of every Jew deported to Theresienstadt.  It signaled a point of no return, although unrealized for the time being.  When deportation to the East became almost routine in ghetto life, many inmates perceived it as the only safe haven.  Theresienstadt was established as a transit camp.  The Nazis eventually found other roles for it as well; as a Jewish resettlement area; a "model ghetto" and false-front for the inspection of the International Red Cross Committee; and, at war's end, the destination for the death marches.

At the center, the title says "Ghettoized."  In the white oval, it says "Placards from the Ghetto Theresienstadt."  In the center of the large Jewish star, it says "Jew."  Above the coat of arms, it is signed "eli."  The painting has not been dated.

Subject/Index Terms:
Entrance to Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia
Jewish Star of David, ghettos
International Committee of the Red Cross
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 24: RG-26.02.05.24- Grandma's Hand Luggage for the Journey to the East, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Grandma's "Hand" Luggage for the Journey East; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a young man helping an elderly woman with her luggage.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Some young men were assigned to help the elderly who were about to be deported to the East.  It was their duty to take care of the luggage, as the old folks had the tendancy to take everything with them, and to assist them in boarding the train.  Older people in Theresienstadt often hoarded every scrap of paper and tiny piece of useless rag, aware that they could not buy anything, and everything might come in handy at some point.  Most of the luggage was not loaded onto the train but left on the platform.

The title at the top says "Grandma's "hand" luggage for the journey to the East."  On the arm band, it says "Transport Aid."  On the luggage tags, it says "1543."  In the right bottom corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Deportation scenes
Deportations from ghettos
Transports
Transport trains
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 25: RG-26.02.05.25- Hambo, the Singer, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Hambo, the Pop-Hit Singer; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows Hambo playing his accordian and singing.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Hamob accompanied his songs with an accordian or a violin.  He was more than a crooner of popular songs.  A member of the privileged Danish contingent, Hambo became a great attraction in Theresienstadt.  His singing style of inter-changing falsetto into deep bass was unusual and astonishing.  Not only did he contrast octaves from high to low, he would also juxtapose sharp, uttermost striking contraries in the text.

The title at the left says "Pop-hit singer Hambo."  Below the title, it says "Hambo came with the Danish Transport to the Ghetto."  At the right, it says "He sang a song: I am dying, I am dying, trala lala, trala lala."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Entertainment in the ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 26: RG-26.02.05.26- Head Count, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Head Count: Thou Shall Be Counted; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows the inmates of Theresienstadt outside for a census count.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

On November 11, 1943, the SS administration unexpectedly ordered a "census count" of the ghetto population.  All forty thousand ghetto inhabitants were forced to stay outside the camp on the former army drill grounds from the early morning to the late afternoon.  Lichtblau-Leskly recalls that the Jewish Council attempted to conduct the head count in as orderly a manner as possible, allowing children and elderly people to pass the census first.

At the bottom right, the title says "Thou shall be counted."  Below the title, it says "Back from the inhabitants, counting the ghetto (children and elderly people first)."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Censuses
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Children in the ghettos
SS and administrative personnel, German
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 27: RG-26.02.05.27- Her Business with the Soup, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Her Soup Business; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows an elderly woman on the streets of the ghetto selling soup.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The almost daily staple was the so-called lentil soup, which was only water into which some powdery synthetic was dissolved.  Sick people, however, found it easier to swallow and retain the watery soup than the bread.  At the best of times the bread ration was barely edible, being made out of some strange, moldy sawdustlike flour.

At the top, the title says "Her 'business' with soup (salty lentils in dusty water)."  Under the title, it says "People ill with typhus exchange bread for soup.  At the center, above the soup vendor's arm, it says "Sir, are you eating your soup?"  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Disease in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 28: RG-26.02.05.28- In Beth Chaluzoth, Hamburg Barracks, Room No. 305, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

In Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg Barracks), Room 305; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows women's barracks in the ghetto and two women seated at a table with a menorah on the table.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The Hamburg barracks housed women exclusively.  Among the inmates was Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich's wife, who shared the room with twenty-five other women.  All were at one time members of the Zionist movement, whose dream it was to move to Palestine right after liberation.  The Halutzoth marked every Friday evening, observing the arrival of Sabbath with Oneg Shabbat.  The women would sing Hebrew songs and learn to speak Hebrew.  The Halutzoth were ardent Zionists; their dream of settling in Palestine gave them purpose and strength to carry on.

At the top right, the title says "In Beth Halutzoth, 'Hamburg barracks,' Room no. 305."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly
Hebrew education
Zionist activities
Ghetto barracks
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 29: RG-26.02.05.29- Jewish Order Police from Westerbork Camp's Trasport Arrivied, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Jewish Police Arrive from Holland; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a Dutch transport arriving from Westerbork transit camp.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

On January 21, 1944, a group of Jewish deportees was transferred to Theresienstadt from Westerbork transit camp in Holland.  It is not clear if these deportees were Dutch Jews or if they were deported from other European countries through Westerbork.  Then men of the Westerbork Ordnungsdienst unit (Jewish Order Service) wore military caps and goggles.  In most transit camps the Germans formed some units that were supposed to supervise order and Westerbork was no exception.

At the top, the title says "Jewish Order Police from Holland.  The transport from the Westerbork camp."  At the left, in the middle of the Jewish star, it says "Jew," in Dutch.  On the armbands, the O.D. stands for Ordnungsdienst (Jewish Order Service).  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police, badges
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Westerbork (Transit camp)
Westerbork (Netherlands: Transit Camp)
Dutch, language
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 30: RG-26.02.05.30- Leisure Activity, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Free Time; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a ghetto inmate working while dreaming of appearing on the theatrical stage.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The Nazis called work in the ghetto "free-time activity."  In reality, everything aside from work was free-time activity.  The level of performing arts in Theresienstadt was extremely high, as many prominent Jewish musicians, artists, writers, and academicians ended up in Theresienstadt.

At the top, the title says "Free time."  A the right, it says "In Theresienstadt ghetto, work is 'free time'--however, everything else is free time."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 31: RG-26.02.05.31- Let me smoke a bit, a cigarette from mouth to mouth, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Let Me Smoke a Bit," or "Give Me a Puff"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows four Jewish men in a cloud of cigarette smoke, inhaling the smoke while sharing a cigarette.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Cigarettes were unavailable to inmates.  Many smokers desperate to soothe their craving exchanged bread or whatever else they had for a cigarette.  A man who got hold of a cigarette was expected to share it with the fellow's inmates.  A single cigarette would be passed from mouth to mouth, puff after puff.

The title at the top, and then repeated twice below, says "Give me a puff," in Czech..."A cigarette from mouth to mouth."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Cigarettes in the ghettos
Restrictions in ghettos, 1939 -- 1945
Ghetto barracks
Czech, language
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 32: RG-26.02.05.32- Lunch time in Beth Chalutzot, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Lunch Break in Beth Halutzoth; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows women gathered around a stove heating their various containers of soup.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Cooking or warming one's cold soup depended on the chance of finding kindling, wood, or some coal for a fire.  In one corner of Room 305 was a small stove, surrounded by many women, some trying to cook, others just hoping to warm up.  Some inmates smuggled in electrical cookers, but those had to be used with great deal of caution, as there was always the risk of getting caught and suffering harsh punishment.

The title at the top says "Midday break in Beth Halutzoth, 'Hamburg barracks,' Room no. 305."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Women in the ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Rationing provisions and regulations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Ghetto barracks
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 33: RG-26.02.05.33- Mission of the Economy Department, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Motto of the Economic Department: "We Take Care of It All!"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows members of the Economic Department "organizing" food for the ghetto.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The poster shows a cook, a baker, and others, all hard at work, their big hands "organizing" all they can.  They all "organized" from the general supplies.  People used access to any and all supplies to improve their lot in the ghetto.  The word slojssen was the Czech version of schleussen, a nuanced term for "organizing," which was considered distinct from stealing.

The title at the top says "The motto of the Economic Department: 'We are there for all!' or 'We take care of it all!'."  At the center, with initials repeated on men's sleeves, "KRI-PO criminal police / WI-PO economic police / stage designers and producers / KU-WA kitchen guards."  Below those initials, it says "All steal," in Yiddish with Czech spelling.  At the bottom right corner the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food Distribution Department of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 34: RG-26.02.05.34- Night Quietness in the Hanover Barracks, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Night Silence in Beth Halutz (Hannover Barracks); artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows the ghetto barracks at night, some inmates are asleep while two men play chess under a lamp.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The Halutzim (Pioneers), members of the Zionist movement, succeeded in living mostly together in room 73A, the attic quarters in Hannover barracks.  The inmates found little nightly repose, for the barracks were vermin-infested, and their bites deprived the men of much-needed sleep.

At the top right, the title says "Night Silence," in Czech.  To the right, in smaller letters, it says "Nightly rest," in German.  At the bottom, it says "In Beth Halutz, 'Hannover barracks' (attic) 73A."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli / Terezin Ghetto 1943."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Zionist activities
Czech, language
Documents in Czech language
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 35: RG-26.02.05.35- Not enough water, too many Ghetto inmates, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Not Enough Water for So Many Ghetto Inmates; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a guard shutting the door as several men try to wash from a dripping faucet.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The Theresienstadt ghetto was unable to accommodate the high number of inmates, who suffered with all kinds of shortages, water being one.  The Sudeten barracks were totally incapable of housing the thousands of men who were kept there, and therefore a measure to control the problem was introduced: restrictive times for the inmates' use of water.

The title at the top says "Not enough water for so many ghetto inmates (Sudeten barracks)."  The sign on the door says "Washing hours 6.30-7.00 / 13.00-14.00 / 19.00-20.00."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Water shortage in the ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 36: RG-26.02.05.36- Only for hard workers - added small rations, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Additional Rations for Heavy-Duty Laborers Only; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows people in a line for soup getting a very small soup ration.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Ghetto rations differed in relation to the categories of inmate.  The rules and provisions introduced by the head of the Jewish Council, Jakob Edelstein, in May 1942 designated the following groups: Group S, heavy-duty laborers, entitled to the biggest rations; Group K, the aged and infirm; and Group N, administrative officials and those assigned to ordinary work.  Nutrition for Group K was of the lowest level.

At the top, the title says "Additional tiny portions."  On the sign at the top right, it says "Only for heavy-duty workers."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food rations for a heavy duty worker in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Additional food rations for the heavy works in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 37: RG-26.02.05.37- Permit Stamp for 10 kg Packages from Friends and Relatives...but only a few got, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Permit Stamp Is Here, But Few Receive Packages; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a young man receiving a package while a blown up version of the postage stamp hangs in the background.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

It was not an ordinary occurrence to receive a package from the outside world.  In Theresienstadt, it was possible to get food parcels from family members and friends who lived in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.  Relatives had to get a permit stamp to be able to send a parcel.  When they obtained such a stamp, they could dispatch a gift parcel directed to the post office in the ghetto.  Notwithstanding, only few inmates received 10-kilo packages from families or friends.

At the top, the title says "Permit stamp for 10 kilogram parcels from friends and relatives."  At the center right, in the postage stamp, it says "Theresienstadt."  Below the stamp, it says "Only few received parcels."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
food parcels
Parcel labels
Packages
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 38: RG-26.02.05.38- Planks for the Kumbal (for a private closet), 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Organizing" Planks for a Kumbal; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows guards looking away while ghetto inmates "organize" planks of wood for a Kumbal.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

In the ghetto barracks there was not a chance of finding a spot for even a modicum of privacy.  Regular ghetto barracks often had three levels of bunks.  In search of privacy, everyone tried to get some boards for building a Kumbal good for one or two persons.

At the top center, the title says "'Organizing' planks for the private compartment."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Privacy in the ghettos
Czech Gendarmerie (Theresienstadt Ghetto)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 39: RG-26.02.05.39- Prague is free of Jews, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Prague Is Free of Jews; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a train deporting Jews from the city of Prague.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The long train churning its way to an unknown destination symbolizes the deportation of Jews, the last journey to the Final Solution.  Every wheel of the train is marked with a yellow Jewish star, indicating that its unwilling passengers are Jews.  The silhouette of Prague Castle is descernable in the background, the fading symbol of a lost home left behind.

In the center, it says "Prague is cleansed of Jews."  In the upper left corner, it says "Prague is our 'Zion'," in Czech, followed by, in smaller letters "Prague????"  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli / Terezin Ghetto 1943."

Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation scenes
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Transport trains
Prague (Czech Republic)
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Czech, language
Documents in Czech language
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 40: RG-26.02.05.40- Protection from Deportation to Poland is not a Privilege, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Protection from Deportation to Poland Is Not a Free Gift; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a guard standing in the cold guarding the camp.  The file contains a black and whtie copy of the original painting.

The words on this painting are a direct quote from Dr. Karl Lowenstein, who insisted that being saved from deportation to Poland, or to the East, did not come as a free gift; it was, according to him, a privilege that had to be earned by devoted performance of duty.  In spite of Lowenstein's relentless efforts to create a perfect security unit, some of the ghetto guards were caught bartering with the Czech gendarmes, who were eager to enrich themselves by putting their hands on some of the jewelry and hand currency smuggled in by inmates.  Even before the Ghetto Guard units were dissolved, some guards were punished for assorted failings and transported to the East.

At the top center, it says "Protection from Poland is not a gift."  Below the title, it says "Dr. Lowenstein's slogan 1943."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 43 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Dr. Karl Löwenstein (commander of Ghettowache, Theresienstadt ghetto)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
Exemptions from deportations
Excuses from transports
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 41: RG-26.02.05.41- Rumors from Latrine BIV, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Rumors about the Frontlines from Latrine B-IV; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows the men's latrines in the ghetto as the men trade stories about the war.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Latrines in Theresienstadt served more than one purpose.  Beyond the self-evident one, the place served as an unofficial information service center where men exchanged--in this one, unsupervised, safe place--the latest Bonkes (rumors) on the war's progress.  Latrines were also the place where inmates could finalize some barter or other illicit transaction.

At the top, the title says "Rumors...or the latest news about the frontlines from latrine B IV."  The sign on the wall to the left says "After defecating, before eating, washing hands is not forgotten."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Latrines in the ghettos
Hygiene in the ghettos
Rumors in the Ghettos
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 42: RG-26.02.05.42- Return after Disinfection, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Back from Delousing--Only a Crazy Person Pays with Ghetto Money; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man attempting to pay another inmate using ghetto money.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

As part of the hoax of Theresienstadt being a civilized town, the Germans decided in 1942 to open a ghetto bank and issue specific currency in several denominations.  The money was of no value, and nothing could have been bought for the camp's tender, but it served the purpose of impressing the visiting Red Cross inspectors.  On one side of the bills was a design of Moses holding the tablets of the Decalogue.  On the other side was a printed signature of the "Elder of the Jews," Jakob Edelstein.  The notes were dated January 1943 but did not go into circulation until May 1943.  It was another element in Nazi propaganda.

At the center, the title says "Back from delousing--Only a Cvok (crazy, in Czech slang) pays with ghetto money."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto money
Theresienstadt ghetto monetary receipts
Nazi Propaganda
Nazi economic propaganda
Czech, language
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 43: RG-26.02.05.43- Risky Apple Stealing, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Risky Apple-Stealing; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man stealing apples while a train passes by in the distance.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Some trifling violations of ghetto rules were punished by the ghetto court, which dtermined the length of confinement to the ghetto jail.  After serving their sentences, the offenders (marked with the so-called Weisung) were usually sent to the East and most often liquidated there.  Some were sent to the Little Foretress at Theresienstadt that no Jewish inmate survived.  Inmates caught stealing as much as an apple from common property were routinely punished by enrollment in the next transport.  The train behind the man picking apples represents a transport to the East.

At the top right, the title says "Risky apple-stealing."  At the bottom right corner, it says "Punishment: with the next transport to the East."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Transports
Transport trains
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 44: RG-26.02.05.45- Senior Inmates are Often Mean Thieves, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Room Elders Are Often Mean Thieves; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a camp elder in the barracks stealing rations of bread.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The Zimmeraelteste (room elder) was a person in charge of a room, responsible for the distribution of bread and the occasional spoonful of sugar.  More often than not they would pinch from the loaves they were doling out among the inmates, cutting a larger portion for themselves than they were entitled to.  Skimming another inmate's allotment of food was considered a crime of theft, for reducing an inmate's portion, which was already pathetically inadequate, directly lessened that person's chance for survival.

At the top, the title says "Often room elders are mean thieves."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Jewish elders
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 45: RG-26.02.05.46- Shared Joy is Double Joy, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Shared Joy Is Double Joy; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows an inmate with a package that is leaking food, which another inmate eagerly collects.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

"Shared Joy Is Double Joy" was the slogan of the parcel post, meant to remind those who were fortunate enough to receive a parcel that they should share their good luck with their less-fortunate fellow inmates.  Most inmates--with the exception of the Danish Jews--were not receiving food parcels.  Therefore every scrap of food was eagerly picked up.

At the top, it says "10 kilogram packages are arriving--(with the "permit stamps") but not for everyone."  Across the center, the title says "Shared joy is double joy, or shared joy doubles joy (slogan of the parcel post)."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated "eli 1945 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
food parcels
Parcel labels
Theresienstadt ghetto, postal stamps
Jewish postal service, Theresienstadt
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 46: RG-26.02.05.47- Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Smuggling Flowers into the Ghetto; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a young woman smuggling flowers under her coat into the ghetto.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The plots in which vegetable and fruits were grown were on the ramparts outside of the ghetto.  The produce was grown for the use of the SS men.  Ghetto inmates assigned to this commando were fortunate because they had a good chance of "organizing" some vegetables by hiding them under their clothes.  It was forbidden to cut or have flowers, but like all else that was forbidden, the inmates did just that.  The dreary drabness of the ghetto, where the predominating shades were brown or gray, was relieved by some green leaves or, better yet, a flower.

At the top, it says "Working in agriculture."  At the center, the title says "Smuggling (under her coat) forbidden greens into the ghetto."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Smuggling in the ghettos
Smuggling, ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 47: RG-26.02.05.48- Stealing and Schleussing  (Organizing), 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

"Organizing" and Stealing Are Not the Same; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows two identical inmates, representing two aspects of the same person, "organizing on one side and stealing food from another inmate on the other side.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

When two individuals in the ghetto do something similar, it is not necessarily the same thing.  The ghetto inmates coined their own laws of morality, firmly differentiating between "organizing" and stealing.  It was generally accepted that "organizing" was a morally tolerable necessity required for survival.  Much worse and totally unacceptable was stealing from a fellow inmate, whose life depended on his meager rations.

The title at the top left says "Two people in the ghetto may seem to do the same thing, nevertheless it is not the same, because one is "organizing" (channeling things), and the other is stealing."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Stealing in the ghettos
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 48: RG-26.02.05.49- Sylvester 1942, New Years' Eve Prophecy, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Sylvester 1942: New Year's Eve Prophecy; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period and poem by Grete Schulhoff.  The painting contains Grete's poem and Erich has decorated it with yellow Jewish stars as well as the flag of Czechoslovakia.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

This poem was written by Grete Schulhoff, one of Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly's roommates in Beth Halutzoth (Hamburg barracks) at Theresienstadt.  Erich Lichtblau-Leskly included the 1942 typescript in his sketchbook.  The title "Sylvester" refers to Saint Sylvester's Day, the date in the Catholic and Protestant calendars, especially in German-speaking countries, of the last day of the year and the eve of the New Year.  The origin and name of this traditional feast day is associated with Pope Sylvester I (papacy, 314--335 C.E.), who is portrayed in church tradition as slaying a dragon and resurrecting its victims.

Translation of the poem: Sylvester 1942 (New Year's Eve Prophecy) [Grete Schulhoff]

Children, the old year has to leave tonight, The year that brought us only grief and suffering, Particularly for us, last year Was a year of sleepless nights.

We women from the Central office, We wrote full of vehemence every single night. We wrote many lists full of indexes Sometimes adding nine, and other times plus seven.

We wrote almost one-hundred-ten-thousand names Of brothers and sisters who went to Theresienstadt. We also wrote lists for some transports That unfortunately were Eastbound.

We wrote all kinds of lists Of Jews and Jewish Christians, Recently we wrote at our Supervisors' order: The night-long list "Big Service Citizens Paper."

The Space Controlling department does what it wants, Transferring daily at least two hundred people, So today we can say that the departing year Was the most miserable one for us Jews.

In spite of all that, we danced and laughed Halayla Hazeh (this night)--this very night We want to be cheerful today, Though today we also miss beer and wine.

We miss good food to eat. Long ago we forgot about tasty food. Today we are glad when we have, On Sylvester, the treat of potato salad.

We will forget how all this unfolded In the course of the upcoming year, The year one thousand nine hundred forty-three, All our suffering and grief will be gone.

Among three hundred sixty-five days There is surely one about which history will say, In this month, on that day, Baruch Hashem [praise God] brought the Jews to Prague.

(Translated by Vera Schiff)

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish poetry
poetry about incarceration
Wartime poetry
Ghetto barracks
Elsa Lichtblau-Leskly
Schulhoff, Grete
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 49: RG-26.02.05.50- Terezinka, a Ghetto Disease, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Terezinka--A Ghetto Disease; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man rushing down the stairs to reach the men's latrines.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Terezinka was a form of paratyphoid disease endemic to the ghetto.  Spread by a bacterium, it was so omnipresent that the symptoms were named after the ghetto.  This condition further weakened inmates, who were already malnourished and had a hard time coping with repeated bouts of severe diarrhea.  Many inmates could not run fast enough to reach the latrines and thus soiled themselves.

The title at the top says "Terezin disease."  The sign on the door says "For men."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 43 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Disease in ghettos
Latrines in the ghettos
Ghetto barracks
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 50: RG-26.02.05.51- The Light Control, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Light Control; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man reading with a light above his head while a guard scolds him.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The one naked bulb suspended high from the ceiling kept the room in semidarkness.  In this image, the guard is checking for illegal light lines, a transgression subject to punishment.  Like all else in the ghetto, skirting the rules was risky.  The sudden "light controls," or inspections, were unpredictable, and if an illegal installation was found, the violator was severely punished, likely to be enrolled in the next transport to the East.

The title at the top right says "Light control."  At the top right, below the title, it says "For illegal diversion of electricity, there was often "admonishment"."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Deportations to concentration camps
Deportation to concentration camps
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 51: RG-26.02.05.52- The Morning Salute of the Ghetto Guard, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Good Morning, Herr Doktor; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows members of the Ghetto Guard saluting their commander, Dr. Karl Lowenstein.  The file contains a black and whtie copy fo the original painting.

An unarmed unit, the Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards) was formed in December 1941.  Their mandate was to maintain order within the Ghetto.  In August 1943, perhaps concerned about a possible uprising by this well-trained unit, the Nazis dissolved the Ghetto Guards and its members were included in the first transport to the East.  It is unknown if Lowenstein survived the war.

At the top left, it says "On the bastions: the morning greeting of the Ghetto Guards (for Dr. Lowenstein)."  At the center, it says "Good Morning, Herr Doctor!"  In small letters above the trousers of Dr. Lowenstein, it says "Dr. Lowenstein."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Dr. Karl Löwenstein (commander of Ghettowache, Theresienstadt ghetto)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Deportations from ghettos
Deportations to concentration camps
Deportation to concentration camps
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 52: RG-26.02.05.53- The New Order Service, No Pushing Please, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The New Order Service, or "Please Do Not Push"; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a guard yelling at an inmate, telling him not to push while others wait in line for food.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Food distribution in the ghetto was supervised by members of the new Ordnugsdienst (Order Service), replacing the Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards), which was dissolved in September 1943 on German orders.  Only this time the Nazis introduced different requirements for the participants.  Those men who were demed eligible needed to be over forty years old, and there would be only one hundred of them.  Unlike their glamorous predecessors in the paramilitary Ghetto Guard, the men of the Ordnugsdienst were not issued uniforms, and hte only sign of their official function was the armband with letters O.D.  Their main duty was to ensure that the inmates did not push or take cuts in line but would wait in orderly fashion for their turns.

The title at the top says "New Order Service."  At the top center, it says "Please be "extremely polite," no pushing!"  The man on the right is saying "Idiot" while the figure with the armband is saying "Insulting an officer!!"  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Ghettowache (Ghetto Guards)
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 53: RG-26.02.05.54- The Operetta in Three Acts, The Ghetto Girl, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Ghetto Girl, an Operetta in Three Acts; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows two elderly ghetto inmates performing in the musical The Ghetto Girl.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

After the disbanding of the Jewish Ghetto Guard, most of the guardsmen were deported to Poland.  One of the inmates, a composer, wrote a musical, The Ghetto Girl.  The plot of the operetta would have had a happy ending: a ghetto guardsman falls in love with a lovely girl, and his love is reciprocated.  The parody in three acts reveals a macabre sense of humor, and Lichtblau-Leskly's sketch contradicts this happy outcome by showing the actors as a couple in their later  years, dancing in front of a hospital entrance.

At the top center, it says "Operetta in three acts, 'The Ghetto Girl'."  At the top right, it says "Today (parody-) performance for the elder ghetto inmates!  Second cast."  At the center, the lyrics say "Dear little ghetto girl, give me a bit of love."  At the left, the sign over the archway says "Hospital Hohenelbe."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Entertainment in the ghettos
Music in the ghettos
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
ghetto hospital
Theresienstadt ghetto, hospital
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 54: RG-26.02.05.55- The Red Cross is Coming, a Happy Ghetto, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

House Arrest for the Old and Infirm; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a woman scouring the sidewalks while she is being observed by a cartoonishly large figure and two elderly people, who are watching from a window.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

This painting reflects another aspect of a German ghetto embellishment, notably the pretense of taking good care of old and ill people.  On the Red Cross commission route, the ground floors were vacated and the elderly ghetto inmates were relocated there.  Their rooms for the time being were furnished with decent beds, tables, wardrobes, and chairs.  The painting shows the man improvements in the ghetto that were all done in preparation for the anxiously awaited visit of the International Red Cross Commission.

At the top left, it says "A "happy" ghetto with "young" people on the streets / shown to the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  In the center, below the window, it says House arrest for the old and infirm."  Below, on the bucket, it says "Cleaning detail."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
International Committee of the Red Cross
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Nazi Propaganda
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 55: RG-26.02.05.56- The Red Cross is Coming, Beautified, Decorated, and Phony, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

It Is Beautiful and Decorated; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man walking by a denture clinic while holding a hand over his mouth.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The advertisement in the window says: Halte den Mund und Deine Zanne gesund.  This sign perhaps may convey a twofold message: "Keep your mouth shut and teeth healthy" or "Keep the mouth shut and your teeth healthy."  Given the fact that hte passer-by covers his mouth, showing a confused look, the artist may well be intending to convey the second meaning.

At the top, the title says "It is beautiful and decorated for the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  At the center, the sign above the shop says "Repairs for dentures."  The sign in the window says "Keep your mouth shut and your teeth healthy, or keep your mouth and teeth healthy."  The sign on the door says "Repairs accepted from 8:00--16:00."  At the right, it says "But even for the ghetto Jews (with a "flower")."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
International Committee of the Red Cross
Businesses in the ghettos
Business in the ghettos
Nazi Propaganda
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 56: RG-26.02.05.57- The Red Cross is Coming, Dining room, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Dining Hall in the Barracks: The Ghetto Is Being "Beautified"!; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a dining hall in the ghetto where elderly people are eating.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The temporary opening of a dining room for the elderly was another feature staged for the Red Cross visitors.  It was accessible only to seniors whose appearance did not disclose their deprivation.  The Germans ordered several younger inmates to function as waiters.  All this was a well-staged act.  It was yet another attempt to show utmost sensitivity to the aged.  Tables were covered with white tablecloths and decorated with cut flowers.  The charade was a complete success.

At the top left corner, it says "It is shown to the gentlemen of the Red Cross."  Across the top, the title says "The dining halls in the barracks...the ghetto is being "beautified"...!"  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Elderly Jewish people in ghettos
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
International Committee of the Red Cross
Nazi Propaganda
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 57: RG-26.02.05.58- Three Kings of the Ghetto-Cook, Baker, and Pastry Baker, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Three Kings in the Ghetto: Baker, Cook, and Pastry Baker; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a backer, cook, and pastry baker while they're working.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

The pastry bakers prepared the pastries for the German officers.  Note that even the cooks and bakers had to wear the yellow Jewish star patch stitched on their clothes at all times.  With the exception of the Danish Jews, this was a compulsory order for all inmates.  Amid the starving multitudes, those who handled food were perceived to be the true aristocrats.

At the top, the title says "Three "kings" in the ghetto."  Under the title, at the right, it says "baker, cook, and bun baker."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Food rations in the ghettos
Food rations in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Food distribution in the ghettos
Food distribution in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Forced labor
Forced labor in ghettos
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 58: RG-26.02.05.59- Transport Leader Mandler Ghettoized, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Transport Leader Mandler Ghettoized and Beaten by Inmates; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows transport dispatcher Mandler walking with a guard, clearly having been badly beaten.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

Some Jews employed by the Jewish community in Prague, particularly those who worked as deportation organizers, were accused of collaboration with the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizeil) and were held in contempt.  These individuals were deported to Theresienstadt last, shortening their detention time.  Their names were never forgotten, however, as they were deeply resented.  The caption tells us that the transport dispatcher Mandler is being ghettoized and is getting thrashed by his fellow ghetto inmates.

At the upper left corner, the title says "Transport leader Mandler was "ghettoized" and beaten up."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1943 / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Prague (Czech Republic)
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Gestapo (Nazi German Secret political police)
Exemptions from deportations
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 59: RG-26.02.05.60- Transport Sorrows, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

Transport Worries; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows a man trying to decide what to pack for his transport to the East.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

There was seldom enough time to pack the few possessions one had and say goodbye to those being left behind.  The summons to join a transport was the most dreaded of orders, one that sooner or later hit most of the inmates.  Though initially inmates did not believe the rumors of mass gassing and wholesale extermination taking place in the East, all inmates feared the order to report for a transport.  In later years, many realized that the whispered dread was the grim reality.  Though scarcely believing in any future, inmates gathered their bundles, reported to the deportation site, and hoped against hope that they might have a chance to live.

At the top, the title says "Enrolled in the transport to the East--only one hour before departure."  On the tag in the center, it says "Transport No. Bx 1035."  At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli / Terezin Ghetto."

Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Deportations from ghettos
Deportations to concentration camps
Deportation to concentration camps
Prisoner luggage upon arrival at a concentration camp
Jewish personal belongings
German, language
Documents in German language
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 60: RG-26.02.05.61- View through the Window, 1970--early 1980'sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A View through the Window; artwork done by Erich Lichtblau-Leskly during his Israeli period.  The painting shows Theresienstadt's bastions and casemates as well as a town far in the distance.  The file contains a black and white copy of the original painting.

A view from the third floor of the Hannover barracks toward the nearby Bohemian city of Bohusovice offered a glimpse of the town's church spire behind the trees in the background.  In the foreground are Theresienstadt's bastions and casemates.  The only inmates of Hannover barracks were men.  One of the ghetto's kitchens was located there.  The sight is bleak.  It is probably winter, as the trees surrounding the ramparts are bare, stripped of their leaves, and as gloomy as the life of the inmates within the former fortress town that the Nazis converted into a wartime ghetto.

At the bottom right corner, the painting has been signed and retrospectively dated, "eli 1944 / Terezin Ghetto."  To the right of the signature, in small letters, it says "View around the bastions of Bohusovice."

Subject/Index Terms:
Ghetto barracks
Bohušovice (Czechoslovakia)
Bohušovice (Czech Republic)
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia: Ghetto)
German, language
Documents in German language
Art in ghettos
Art in camps and ghettos
Clandestine art in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Corruption in the Theresienstadt ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
day-to-day life in ghettos
Day-to-day life in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1942 -- 1945
Erich Lichtblau-Leskly, incarcerated in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, artist
Ghetto life through the day-to-day caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, Theresienstadt ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Hierarchy of the Theresienstadt Ghetto, 1941 -- 1945
Structure of the Theresienstadt Ghetto through the caricatures of Erich Lichtblau, 1942 -- 1945
Creators:
Lichtblau-Leskly, Erich (1911--2004)

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