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Warsaw Ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Overview

Abstract

Scope and Contents

Biographical Note

Administrative Information

Detailed Description

RG -25.01, Warsaw Ghetto, photodocuments

RG -25.02, Warsaw Ghetto, forced stripping photographs

RG-25.03, Warsaw Ghetto, Photographs of the Street-Scenes, 1940 -- 1943

RG-25.04, Documents Issued by German Authorities and Jewish Council of the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 -- 1943

RG-25.05, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April -- May 1943

RG-25.06, Warsaw ghetto, secondary photographs and documents

RG-25.07, Warsaw Ghetto, Wladyslaw Wójcik Collection



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Collection Overview

Title: Warsaw Ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1939-1978Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Predominant Dates:1940-1944

ID: RG-25/RG-25

Primary Creator: Czerniaków, Adam (1880-1942)

Other Creators: Wójcik, Władysław

Extent: 0.0

Arrangement:

The arrangement scheme for the record group was imposed during processing in the absence of an original order. Materials are arranged by subject, then by identifier, as assigned by the processor.

Record group is comprised of seven collections and three items, the collections of which are: 1. Collection of Warsaw ghetto street scene photographs; 2. Collection on Warsaw Ghetto Uprising; 3. Collection of exhibit-building photographs; 4. Collection of Warsaw ghetto documents issued by the German authorities and Jewish ghetto administration; 5. Władysław Wójcik collection; 6.Collection of photographs on forced stripping in the Warsaw ghetto; 7. Collection on Adam Czerniakow.

Subjects: Adam Czerniakow, Chairman of the Jewish Council of Warsaw, 1939-1942, Aftermath of Warsaw ghetto uprising, Black Market in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 --1943, Books in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943, Business in the Warsaw ghetto, Children in the Warsaw Ghetto, Collaboration between the members of Jewish councils and German administration, Collaboration in ghettos, collaboration in the Holocaust, Collaboration in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 --1943, Commemoration of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Connections between the Jewish Combat Organization and Polish Governmetn in Exile, 1942 -- 1945, Correspondence between Wladyslaw Wojcik and Jewish Organizations in the United States and Israel, Corruption in the Warsaw ghetto, 1939 -- 1943, day-to-day life in the Warsaw ghetto, Demolition of the Warsaw Ghetto, May 1943, Deportation from Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka death camp, July 1942, Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943, Destruction of the Warsaw ghetto, post-uprising, Diary of Adam Czerniakow, the chairman of the Jewish Council of Warsaw, Education in the Warsaw ghetto, Emanuel Ringelblum, Emanuel Ringelblum Archive, Warsaw Ghetto, Entertainment in the Warsaw ghetto, Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto, Final Aktion (action) in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943, Food distribution in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943, Food rations in the Warsaw Ghetto, German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, German rules and orders regarding the Warsaw Ghetto, Hunger in the Warsaw Ghetto, intellectual life in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943, Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa), Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members, Jewish Order Police in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943, Jewish prisoners of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943, Jurgen (Juergen) Stroop, General of Combat SS and Police, Jurgen (Juergen) Stroop, report of the last day of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943, Life conditions in the Warsaw Ghetto, Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943, means of survival in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943, Medical care in Warsaw Ghetto, Mordechaj Anielewicz, commander of the Jewish Combat Organization and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Orders issued by the German administration during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943, Pedestrian bridges in the Warsaw ghetto, Poland (1939--1945), Polish Home Army (Armija Krajowa), Poverty and Desperation in the Warsaw ghetto, Relations between Jewish and Polish Resistance in Warsaw, 1939 -- 1945, Sarenka Rachel Zylberberg, organizer of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Selection for resettlement (deportation) from Warsaw ghetto, Smuggling in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 --1943, The Holocaust in Poland, The last day of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943, The role of the Warsaw sewers in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Warsaw (Poland), Warsaw (Poland: ghetto), Warsaw ghetto, post-uprising and liquidation, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, combat tactics, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, defense bunkers, Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy (Jewish Military Union), Warsaw

Forms of Material: Molotov Cocktails, a liquid explosive used by the Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Languages: German, English, French, Polish

Abstract

This Record Group comprises collections of narratives and photo-documents reflecting the history of Warsaw Ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This record group is comprised of photographs, narratives, postwar correspondence, officially-issued documentation, and links to U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum documentaries. Represented in the photographs are street scenes, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, forced stripping and life in the Warsaw Ghetto, while other materials contain documents issued by German authorities and the Jewish ghetto administration. A significant collection includes documents from Władysław Wójcik, a Polish construction technician, who, while working on the site of the former Warsaw ghetto in 1950, discovered the second part of the Ringelblum Archive. The Władysław Wójcik collection contains postwar correspondence between Mr. Wójcik and various Jewish organizations, including the Israeli Consulate General, Yad Vashem, and the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, as well as medical doctors whose care he sought out.

The linked documentaries, within this record group, are streamed from the Film and Video Archive of the USHMM. These documentaries are Destruction of Warsaw, Poland; Claude Lanzmann Shoah Collection, Interview with Jan Karski; and Propaganda filming of the Warsaw Ghetto: prison; street; corpses; burial.

This record group contain both original materials, as well as secondary documents and photographs. The materials in this record group have been partially digitized.

Collection Historical Note

The Warsaw Ghetto was established on October 16, 1940 in the Jewish section of Warsaw. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began on April 19, 1943, when the Nazis decided to liquidate the ghetto and send its remaining inhabitants to Treblinka, an extermination camp. The uprising lasted until May 16, 1943.The collection of photographs depicting a forced stripping of a Jewish young woman in front of German soldiers consists of original photographs.

The collection of photo documents depicting ghetto life are largely secondary photographs. The same is true about the photo documents comprising the collection devoted to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.RG-25.01- Warsaw Ghetto Street Scenes Photo-Collection

This collection of four photographs is of the Warsaw Ghetto from 1943.

RG-25.01.01.01- The first photograph depicts a Jewish man in the front, two Jewish females in the back, and another Jewish man passing by on the street. There is a clock in the background with a hanging sign, “Zegarmistrz.”

RG-25.01.01.02- The second photograph depicts the backs of a group of males and females marching and carrying shovels. There is a man in the back holding arms. There is also a film negative of this photograph included in the envelope the photographs are in.

RG-25.01.01.03- The third photograph is of a street scene with a tall building in the background.

RG-25.01.01.04- Photograph of a Warsaw Ghetto street scene, two men walking past each other

RG-25.01.02- Warsaw Ghetto, Police Mistreating Old Man

Caption attached- “A Hitlerite policeman/schupe/ mistreats an old Jew. Photo found on a Hitlerite officer killed in battle.” Caption also in Polish.

RG-25.01.03- Warsaw Ghetto, Invaders and a group of Jewish Men

Caption attached- “By persecuting the Jews the invader tried to trample down their human dignity and thus kill their spirit of resistance. Photo taken from the Ghetto Underground Archives.” Caption also in Polish.

RG-25.01.04- Warsaw Ghetto in Flames, the last Jewish prisoners are led to execution

Dated- 1943-

This photograph shows the Warsaw Ghetto in flames as the last Jewish prisoners are led to execution.

RG-25.01.05- Warsaw Ghetto, 1941, photocopies

Photocopies of photographs of the Warsaw Ghetto in 1941. The first is a scene of men working and using wheelbarrows. The second is of men walking toward a car. The third is of a man standing near a pile of rectangular objects.

RG-25.01.06- Soldiers walking in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto in May 1943

Dated- May 1943

A photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto in flames in May 1943, two copies.

RG-25.01.07- Warsaw Ghetto, Wagon of dead bodies

RG-25.01.08- Warsaw Ghetto, A man on the street

RG-25.01.09- Warsaw ghetto, a doctor visiting a dwelling at 33 Nalewki Street, 1941

RG-25.01.10- Warsaw Ghetto Jewish police, May, 1941

RG-25.02- Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Photographs

Dated- April-May 1943

RG-25.02.01- Two male resistance fighters during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

RG-25.02.02- Blazing houses during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

RG-25.02.03- Fighter climbing out of a cellar with hands in the air after capture by the Nazis.

RG-25.02.04- Women prisoners lined up awaiting their fate.

RG-25.02.05- Mordechai Anielewicz, original Passport Photograph

This photograph was donated by Mrs. Nutkievitz, who was in Sweden and exchanged photos with a friend, who gave her this original passport photograph of Mordechai Anielewicz. Anielewicz was a strong leader and one of the initiators of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising; he had been appointed commander of the ZOB, a Jewish fighting organization, in November of 1942. He was killed in the bunker on May 8, 1943.

RG-25.02.06- Warsaw Ghetto Burning, 3 copies

Dated- April-May 1943

Three copies of the same photograph, a photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto in flames in the background of a skyline.

RG-25.02.07- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, two female members of Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) before the execution, Courtesy- YIVO Institute for Jewish research

RG-25.02.08- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Jews in front of the German soldiers, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection

RG-25.02.09- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, a street in the ghetto after the Uprising

RG-25.02.10- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, a column of Jewish captives is being led in the aftermath of the Uprising, courtesy of Wide World Photo

RG-25.02.11- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, in the aftermath, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection

RG-25.02.12- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, ruins of the ghetto, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection

RG-25.02.13- Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, in the aftermath

RG-25.02.14- New York Times, Warsaw Ghetto article

Secret Polish Radio asks Aid, Cut off

RG-25.02.15- Heavily armed German troops clear Muranowski Square of Jewish Resistance Fighters, April, 1943

RG-25.02.16- The Monument of Ghetto Heroes

A small relief of one side of the Monument of Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw dedicated to the Ghetto Heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto. The box contains a booklet in English explaining the monument.

RG-25.03- Exhibit-Building, Secondary Photographs

RG-25.03.01- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto wall

RG-25.03.02- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, Hungry and Exhausted Kids in the yard

RG-25.03.03- Color slide, Warsaw Ghetto, Jewish Policeman regulates traffic

RG-25.03.04- Slide, Warsaw Ghetto, Books are being sold and exchange on the street

RG-25.03.05- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, A man on the street

RG-25.03.06- Photograph, Warsaw, First Days of the German occupation

RG-25.03.07- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, a view of the ghetto wall

RG-25.03.08- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, Jews climbing over the ghetto wall

RG-25.03.09- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, at the cemetery

RG-25.03.10- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, a Jewish Boy, 1943, Yad Vashem Archives

RG-25.03.11- Photograph, Warsaw, Jews are not allowed into the park

RG-25.03.12- Photograph, Warsaw, a ghetto check-point

RG-25.03.13- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, a ghetto entrance

RG-25.03.14- Photograph, Warsaw ghetto, medical examining in the ghetto

RG-25.03.15- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, prayer in the ghetto

RG-25.03.16- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, Jewish kids in the classroom

RG-25.03.17- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, A beggar on the street

RG-25.03.18- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, unidentified location, perhaps a transfer

RG-25.03.19- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, inside a ghetto dwelling

RG-25.03.20- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto, street sale

RG-25.03.21- Photograph, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

RG-25.03.22- Slide, Warsaw ghetto, pedestrian bridge

RG-25.03.23- Slide, Warsaw ghetto, transporting cargo

RG-25.03.24- Photo-copy, Warsaw ghetto, a food ration card

RG-25.03.25- Photograph, Warsaw ghetto, street entertainer Rubinstein on the street

RG-25.03.26- Photograph, Warsaw, a Jewish fur shop, preparing for the German requisitions

RG-25.03.27- Photograph, Warsaw ghetto, dragging the dead

RG-25.04- Warsaw Ghetto Documents issued by the German Authorities and Jewish Ghetto Administration

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RG- 25.04.01- Warsaw Ghetto, Notice, copy

Dated- 10 November 1941

Issued by- Dr. Fischer, Gouverneur

“Notice- Death penalty for leaving the Jewish residential district…the General Governor decreed that in the future, when a Jew of the residential district leaves on un authorized leave, there will be a death penalty. The same penalty applies to those who take in Jews either knowingly or helping by using all kinds of vehicles. The trial is carried out by the Special Court of Warsaw. I would like to see the entire population of the Warsaw District comply to this new statutory because only a more rigorous approach is unrelenting.” The language is in German.

RG- 25.04.02- Warsaw Ghetto, Judenrat Notice, copy

Dated- 22 July 1942

Issued by- Warsaw Ghetto Judenrat

A notice from the Warsaw Ghetto Judenrat that all Jewish people of all ages and sex living in Warsaw are relocated to the East…Person designated for resettlement may each pack a travel bag of 15 kilograms and may bring monetary valuables, jewelry, gold, etc...The transportation begins July 22, 1942 at 11am…” The language of the notice is in German and Polish.

RG- 25.04.03- Warsaw Police Bulletin

Dated- 1943

Issued by- Warsaw Police

A Warsaw Police bulletin in German and Polish.

RG- 25.04.04- Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa Notice, copy

Dated- 23 April 1943

Language- Polish

Notice to Polish citizens to fight against the German army, which as cruel invaders, invaded the homes of their mothers, wives and children. The notice calls for a fight against a common enemy, the Nazis, for freedom, human dignity, and national honor.

RG- 25.04.05- Telefax Copy

Dated- 16 May 1943

Language- German

“Sender- Police of Warsaw District

Subject- Ghetto-Grossaktion

Attention- Higher SS and Police of the East…

Krakow

The course of the Grossaktion on May 16 1943, beginning 10 A.M.-

There were 180 Jews, bandits, and people destroyed. The former Jewish residential district of Warsaw no longer exists. With the blowing up of the Warsaw Synagogue, the Grossaktion ended at 8-15 P.M.

The evidence is collected and the total destruction of Jews is 56 065.

Own no losses.

Final report…May 18 1943.”

RG-25.04.06- Warsaw Judenrat informs about mass deportation to Treblinka, 22 July 1942

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RG-25.05- Władysław Wójcik Collection

Provenance- Władysław Wójcik, 99-44-62 Avenue, Rego Park, New York, II374. Mr. Wójcik’s collection includes his appeals to Jewish organizations for financial assistance and their responses, letters concerning his nomination to Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile, a letter from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, and a letter from a doctor stating his health. The collection also includes a passport photograph of Mr. Wójcik.

Organization- The collection of documents is a collection of letters, totaling 16 pages. The narrative is placed in a pocket folder and is bound by a paper clip.

Language- English, French, Polish

Bibliographical/Historical note- In 1950 Władysław Wójcik, a construction technician, working on the site of the Warsaw ghetto discovered the second part of the Ringelblum Archives (which contain clandestine documentation of ghetto life). The documents were hidden in two large milk canisters. Władysław Wójcik, having notified the Jewish Historical Institute, ensured security of the documents.

In time Mr. Wójcik emigrated from Poland to the US where his health gradually deteriorated. He also encountered financial hardships. Mr. Wójcik desperately sought help from various Jewish organizations, as well as from private persons. Having been recognized by Yad Vashem as a Righteous Among Nations, he had been given no help from Jewish establishment in the U.S. or Israel. The correspondence proves that his appeal for assistance was not heard.

RG- 25.05.01- Certified Letter, Appeal, Władysław Wójcik

Dated- 1 September 1978

This document is an appeal from Władysław Wójcik to Jewish philanthropic organizations for financial assistance and chronicles his other failed attempts to receive financial assistance from Jewish organizations in the past. He cites his failing health, previous imprisonment by the Gestapo, and his moral assistance to Jews during the war and his role in securing the second portion of the Ringelblum Archives as his reasons for asking for financial assistance.

RG- 25.05.02- New Year’s greetings from L. Bernstein and Engineer A. Reiss from

Dated- 1 January 1964

New Year’s greetings from L. Bernstein and Engineer A. Reiss from Israel expressing blessings and gratitude. Included with the original letter was a souvenir- one small chocolate and one small book.

RG-25.05.03- Certificate from the Jewish Historical Institute, in Polish and English

Dated- 15 August 1964

Issued by- The Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw

Two certificates, one in Polish and a translation in English, from the Jewish Historical Institute certifying that Władysław Wójcik discovered the second portion of the Ringelblum Archives in two large cans while engaged in extraction work on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto on December 1, 1950. Mr. Władysław Wójcik also kept a smuggled diary in his parents’ apartment during the German occupation.

RG- 25.05.04- Recognition Diploma from Yad Vashem, copy

Dated- 1 May 1966

Issued by- Yad Vashem and the Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority

This recognition diploma attests to a meeting on 15 June 1967 when Yad Vashem and the Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority decided to pay homage to Władysław Wójcik for his part in saving Jews during the time of extermination in the face of danger with a diploma or honor, and to grant him the right to plant a tree on the Mount of Jerusalem.  The diploma is in Hebrew and French.

RG-25.05.05- Letter, World Jewish Congress

Dated- 28 March 1968

Issued by- World Jewish Congress

A response from the Executive Director of the World Jewish Congress, Max Melamet, to Mr. Wójcik’s appeal for financial assistance.

RG-25.05.06- Letter, Dr. Irving Rappaport

Dated- 7 July 1978

A letter from Dr. Irving Rappaport, M.D., detailing Mr. Wójcik’s decline in health since his heart attack in 1977. Two copies of the same letter.

RG-25.05.07- Letter from Moshe Landau, President of the Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, to Władysław Wójcik

Dated- 15 August 1968

Issued by- Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, Yad Vashem

Letter from Moshe Landau, President of the Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, to Władysław Wójcik, announcing Yad Vashem’s decision in a preliminary meeting on June 15, 1965, to grant Władysław Wójcik a diploma of honor and the right to plant a tree on the Mount of Jerusalem in his name if fate brings him to Israel, on account of the valiancy and human solidarity he showed by saving Jews in the face of danger under German occupation. The letter states the conferring of the diploma and its date will be communicated later by the Consulate. The letter is in French.

RG-25.05.08- Invitation to receive a Righteous Among the Nations Award

Dated- 20 January 1969

Issued by- Consulate General of Israel Office in New York

A letter from a Consul of Israel in New York, N. Eshkol, inviting Władysław Wójcik to a ceremony at the American Israel Cultural Foundation in New York to receive his Righteous Among the Nations Award.

RG 25.05.09- Photograph of Władysław Wójcik Accepting his Righteous Among the Nations Award, photocopy

Dated 20 February 1969

A copy of a photograph showing Władysław Wójcik accepting his Righteous Among the Nations Award at The American Israel Cultural Foundation  in New York. The General Consul of Israel, Mr. N. Eshkol, and Vice Consul and Władysław Wójcik are in the photograph.

RG-25.05.10- Israel’s Tribute to the Righteous, Opening Remarks

Dated- 20 February 1969

Opening remarks by the Consul General of Israel Mr. R. Amir for Władysław Wójcik’s ceremony celebrating his inclusion in the Righteous Among the Nations.

RG-25.05.11- Letter from Consul of Israel, New York

Dated- 6 March 1969

Issued by- Consulate General of Israel Office in New York

A letter from a Consul of Israel in New York, N. Eshkol, thanking Władysław Wójcik for his presence at a ceremony at the American Israel Cultural Foundation in New York to receive his Righteous Among the Nations Award.

RG- 25.05.12- Photograph of city buildings, copy

RG-25.06- Warsaw Ghetto, Forced Stripping Photographs

Organization- This collection of eight photographs is of forced stripping in the Warsaw Ghetto and is placed in protective sleeves inside a pocket folder.

Bibliographical/Historical note- The Warsaw Ghetto was established on October 16, 1940 in Warsaw, Poland, by the German occupation.

RG-25.06.01- A woman without a top, surrounded by soldiers.

RG-25.06.02- A soldier forcing a woman to strip.

RG-25.06.03- A woman on the floor, removing or putting on her socks.

RG-25.06.04- The same woman standing up in the street.

RG-25.06.05- A woman with her elbow raised and men in the background on the street.

RG-25.06.06- A soldier forcing a woman to strip in the street.

RG-25.06.07- Two soldiers forcing two women to strip.

RG-25.06.08- A woman standing in the street without a top as a soldier in the back keeps guard.

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Film and Video Archive

RG-25.07- Battle for Warsaw, English narration, USHMM

RG-25.08- Jan Karski Report, film by Claude Lanzman, USHMM

RG-25.09- Warsaw Ghetto prison, Jewish police, film, USHMM

RG-25.10- Adam Czerniakow

RG-25.10.01- Adam Czerniakow, biographical note

RG-25.10.02- The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising started on April 19, 1943 when the Nazis decided to liquidate the ghetto and send its remaining inhabitants to Treblinka, an extermination camp. The uprising lasted until May 16, 1943

Wladyslaw Wójcik collection of documents contains original papers and copies from the original documents. Mr. Wójcik’s collection includes his requests addressed to a number of Jewish organizations. He was asking for financial assistance needed to subsidize his medical treatment.  This Collection also includes correspondence from the Jewish organizations with rejection of the requested financial assistance. There is correspondence concerning his nomination to be considered by Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile. Another part of the Collection contains a letter from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, and a letter from a doctor stating reporting on Mr. Wójcik’s health conditions.

In 1950 Władysław Wójcik, a construction technician, working on the site of the Warsaw ghetto discovered the second part of the Ringelblum Archives (which contain clandestine chronicles documenting the ghetto life). The documents were hidden in the two large milk canisters. Władysław Wójcik, having notified the Jewish Historical Institute, ensured security of the documents.

Sometime later, Mr. Wójcik emigrated from Poland to the US where his health gradually deteriorated. He also experienced financial hardships. Mr. Wójcik desperately sought help from various Jewish organizations, as well as from private persons. Having been recognized by Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile Among Nations, he had not been given any help from Jewish establishment in the U.S. or Israel. The correspondence proves that his requests for financial and medical help were falling on a deaf ear.Scope/Content Notes, this collection contains original documents and photographs and more in numbers, secondary documents and photographs. It shall be noted that photo documents received from Bundesarchiv have been lesser known, rarely used in publications. We have displayed them as the museum exhibits. Their digitized copies are part of the several archival collections including this one.

Three documentaries from the USHMM Film and Video Archive complement this Collection by the means of original footage and the oral history.

Biographical Note

Adam Czerniaków, Chairman of the Warsaw Jewish Council from September 1939 to 23 July 1942, was often known for what he was not. He was not a religious Orthodox, not a Bundist (Jewish social-democrat), not an ardent Zionist. Yet he was a man with qualities: an honest, reliable, responsible, carrying, and compassionate person. Reflections on what he was not would only confirm his adequacy to the period of extreme challenges, in which he lived. He did not flee Warsaw in the wake of German occupation, like former chairman, Maurycyj Mayzel; he did not misinform the German authorities on the gruesome situation in the ghetto, like the chairman of the Łódź ghetto, Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, did. Adam Czerniaków being a captain of a sinking ship still believed in a positive outcome.

When it became obvious that the Germans commenced mass deportations from the ghetto in the end of July 1942, with expectations of compliance with deportation quotas, Adam Czerniaków committed suicide on 23 July 1942. In his final passage of his Diary on Tishe B’Av, July 23, 1942, he wrote “It is 3 o’clock. So far there are 4000 ready to go. According to orders there have to be four thousand [more] by 4 o’clock.”[1]

Czerniaków kept his diary from the beginning of the German occupation of Warsaw (October 1939) to the orders of mass deportation from the Warsaw ghetto (July 1942). The entries were concise, well to the point, but not without passion. His records comprise a truthful narrative, startling and stunning in its exactness and historicism. In the post-Holocaust world, Czerniaków’s diaries have become a credible standard allowing us to test the reliability of other relevant sources.

<br clear="all" /> <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /> [1] Raul Hilberg, Stanisław Staron, and Josef Kermisz, eds. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniaków: Prelude to Doom (New York: Stein and Day, 1979), 23.

Subject/Index Terms

Adam Czerniakow, Chairman of the Jewish Council of Warsaw, 1939-1942
Aftermath of Warsaw ghetto uprising
Black Market in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 --1943
Books in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943
Business in the Warsaw ghetto
Children in the Warsaw Ghetto
Collaboration between the members of Jewish councils and German administration
Collaboration in ghettos
collaboration in the Holocaust
Collaboration in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 --1943
Commemoration of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Connections between the Jewish Combat Organization and Polish Governmetn in Exile, 1942 -- 1945
Correspondence between Wladyslaw Wojcik and Jewish Organizations in the United States and Israel
Corruption in the Warsaw ghetto, 1939 -- 1943
day-to-day life in the Warsaw ghetto
Demolition of the Warsaw Ghetto, May 1943
Deportation from Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka death camp, July 1942
Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943
Destruction of the Warsaw ghetto, post-uprising
Diary of Adam Czerniakow, the chairman of the Jewish Council of Warsaw
Education in the Warsaw ghetto
Emanuel Ringelblum
Emanuel Ringelblum Archive, Warsaw Ghetto
Entertainment in the Warsaw ghetto
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Final Aktion (action) in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943
Food distribution in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943
Food rations in the Warsaw Ghetto
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
German rules and orders regarding the Warsaw Ghetto
Hunger in the Warsaw Ghetto
intellectual life in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Jewish Order Police in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943
Jewish prisoners of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943
Jurgen (Juergen) Stroop, General of Combat SS and Police
Jurgen (Juergen) Stroop, report of the last day of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943
Life conditions in the Warsaw Ghetto
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
means of survival in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940 --1943
Medical care in Warsaw Ghetto
Mordechaj Anielewicz, commander of the Jewish Combat Organization and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Orders issued by the German administration during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943
Pedestrian bridges in the Warsaw ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Polish Home Army (Armija Krajowa)
Poverty and Desperation in the Warsaw ghetto
Relations between Jewish and Polish Resistance in Warsaw, 1939 -- 1945
Sarenka Rachel Zylberberg, organizer of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Selection for resettlement (deportation) from Warsaw ghetto
Smuggling in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 --1943
The Holocaust in Poland
The last day of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943
The role of the Warsaw sewers in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw ghetto, post-uprising and liquidation
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, combat tactics
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, defense bunkers
Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy (Jewish Military Union), Warsaw

Administrative Information

Repository: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

Physical Access Note: The photographs received from the Bundesarchiv, which have been rarely used in publications, are currently displayed in the museum exhibits.

Original/Copies Note: Some of the secondary photographs have been received from the Bundesarchiv, and the documentaries are linked from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Destruction of Warsaw, Poland can be found at http://resources.ushmm.org/film/display/detail.php?file_num=0312; Claude Lanzmann Shoah Collection, Interview with Jan Karski can be found at http://resources.ushmm.org/film/display/detail.php?file_num=4739; and Propaganda filming of the Warsaw Ghetto: prison; street; corpses; burial can be found at http://resources.ushmm.org/film/display/detail.php?file_num=1646.

Preferred Citation: RG-25, Warsaw Ghetto. Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust Archive.

Processing Information: Materials are primarily described using the local descriptive standards of the LA Museum of the Holocaust.


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG -25.01, Warsaw Ghetto, photodocuments, 1940 -- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG -25.02, Warsaw Ghetto, forced stripping photographs, ca 1943],
[Sub-Collection 3: RG-25.03, Warsaw Ghetto, Photographs of the Street-Scenes, 1940 -- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 4: RG-25.04, Documents Issued by German Authorities and Jewish Council of the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 -- 1943, 1940 --1943],
[Sub-Collection 5: RG-25.05, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April -- May 1943],
[Sub-Collection 6: RG-25.06, Warsaw ghetto, secondary photographs and documents, 1940 -- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 7: RG-25.07, Warsaw Ghetto, Wladyslaw Wójcik Collection],
[All]

Sub-Collection 5: RG-25.05, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April -- May 1943Add to your cart.
Collection of photo-documents showing the aftermath of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
Jewish prisoners of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy (Jewish Military Union), Warsaw
Jewish resistance organizations in ghettos, Poland
Jewish resistance organization in the Warsaw ghetto
Jewish resistance and defiance
Soldiers, German
Combat SS units, German
Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943
Jurgen (Juergen) Stroop, General of Combat SS and Police
Demolition of the Warsaw Ghetto, May 1943
Prisoners of war, Jewish
The Holocaust in Poland
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Polish Home Army (Armija Krajowa)
Resistance, Poland
Poland (1943)
Sarenka Rachel Zylberberg, organizer of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Mordechaj Anielewicz, commander of the Jewish Combat Organization and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-25.05.01, Poster issued by Jewish Combat Organization (ZOB),  April 1943, April 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A poster with inscriptions in Yiddish issued by the Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa) in April 1943. The ZOB appeals to the Polish comrades in arms to unite in the common uprising against the Germans.
Subject/Index Terms:
Resistance, Jewish
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Jewish resistance and defiance
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Jewish Polish comradeship in arms against the German oppression, 1939 -- 1945
The Holocaust in Poland
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1943)
Creators:
Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa (Jewish Combat Organization) (1942 -- 1943)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-25.05.02, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, A Jewish resistance member surrenders, May 1943, Warsaw, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph shows a Jewish resistance fighter in the Warsaw Ghetto Urpising who surrenders from the bunker, Warsaw, May 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Resistance, Jewish
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, combat tactics
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, defense bunkers
Soldiers, German
Combat SS units, German
The Holocaust in Poland
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1943)
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-25.05.03,  Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Hehalutz women captured with weapon, 1943. On the photograph, from left to right, Malka Zdrojewicz (Horenstein), Bluma Wyszogrodzka and Rachela Wyszogrozka., April -- May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

These resistance fighters were captured by the Germans and sent to the Majdanek concentration camp. Here is an excerpt from the recollection of Malka Zdrojewicz (Horenstein), "We went  to a neutral place in the ghetto area and climed down into the underground sewers. Through them, we girls used to carry arms into the ghetto; we hid thme in our boots. During the ghetto uprising we hurled Molotov cocktails at the Germans.

After the supression of the uprising we went  into hiding taking refuge in an underground shelter where a large quantity of arms was piled up. But the Germans detected us and forced  us out. I happened to be there with Rachela and Bluma Wyszogrodzka (and that is how they took our picture)...

Rachela and I, together with the others, were driven to the Umschlagplatz. They later took us to Majdanek from there."

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish resistance organization in the Warsaw ghetto
Jewish resistance and defiance
Photographs, Jewish resistance members
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Jewish resistance members, female
Jewish combat operations in the Warsaw ghetto, April -- May 1943
Umschlagplatz, a collection center for deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto
Malka Zdrojewicz (Horenstein), Jewish resistance member, 1941 -- 1943
Bluma Wyszogrodzka, Jewish resistance member, 1941 -- 1943
Rachela Wyszogrodzka, Jewish resistance member
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, combat tactics
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
The role of the Warsaw sewers in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Molotov Cocktails, a liquid explosive used by the Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1943)
The Holocaust in Poland
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Franz Konrad, German military photographer (1943)
Propaganda Kompanie No. 689 (Propaganda Company), German Army (1943)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-25.05.04, Warsaw Ghetto, Mordechai Anielewicz, al Passport photograph, ca 1937Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Mordechaj Anielewicz (1919 -- 8 May 1943) was one of the leaders of the Jewish Combat Organization (ZOB) from January to May 1943. He led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising until his death on 8 May 1943 in the ZOB command bunker center.

Anielewicz was born into a poor Jewish family in the small town of Wyszkow near Warsaw. After he completed the high school studies he joined  and later became a leader of the "Hashomer Hatzair," the Zionist-socialist youth movement.

In 1942, he joined the Jewish Combat Organization (ZOB). In November 1942, he was appointed as the group's chief commander. After the connections with the Polish government in exile were established, the group began receiving weapons from the Polish underground on the Aryan side of the city. On 18 January 1943, Anielewicz organized the first act of the the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising preventing  the majority  of a second  wave of Jews from being deported to extermination centers. This initial incient of arme resistance was a prelude  to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising that commenced on April 19, 1943.

It is assumed that he died on 8 May 1943 along with his girlfriend and many of his staff at the German-surrounded the ZOB Command Bunker at 18 Mila Street in Warsaw.

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Resistance, Jewish
Jewish resistance members, male
Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943
Jewish Polish comradeship in arms against the German oppression, 1939 -- 1945
Connections between the Jewish Combat Organization and Polish Governmetn in Exile, 1942 -- 1945
Jewish resistance and defiance
Jewish resistance organizations in ghettos, Poland
Mordechaj Anielewicz, commander of the Jewish Combat Organization and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Polish Zionists, 1939 -- 1945
Polish resistance fighters in the Second World War, 1939 -- 1945
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Honors to the Jewish and Polish resistance fighters, 1939 --1945
Cross of Valour, Polish miliatary decoration (medal)
Cross of Grundwald, Polish military decoration (medal)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, defense bunkers
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1943)
Creators:
Polish civil authorities, 1918 --1939 (1918 --1939)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-25.05.05, Photograph of the skyline of the Warsaw Ghetto Burning, 1943, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph showing the skyline of the Warsaw Ghetto as it's burning, 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Destruction of buildings during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Resistance, Jewish
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Poland (1943)
Poland (1939--1945)
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The Holocaust in Poland
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Jewish resistance and defiance
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, combat tactics
Soldiers, German
Jewish resistance organization in the Warsaw ghetto
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish resistance, photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-25.05.06, Photograph from the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Jews in front of German soldiers, 1943, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph of a scene from the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943. Jews are hiding in front of German soldiers underneath rubble.
Subject/Index Terms:
Destruction of buildings during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Resistance, Jewish
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Poland (1943)
Poland (1939--1945)
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Jewish resistance and defiance
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Jewish resistance organizations in ghettos, Poland
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, defense bunkers
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Soldiers, German
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish resistance, photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-25.05.07, A street in the Warsaw ghetto after the uprising, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Subject/Index Terms:
Destruction of buildings during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Poland (1943)
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Resistance, Jewish
Soldiers, German
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Jewish resistance organization in the Warsaw ghetto
The Holocaust in Poland
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-25.05.08, Jewish captives surrendering after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Jewish resitance fighters surrendering after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Jewish resistance and defiance
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
Poland (1943)
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Resistance, Jewish
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The last day of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943
The Holocaust in Poland
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-25.05.09, A column of Jewish captives  in the aftermath of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Jewish fighters marching in the aftermath of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Jewish resistance and defiance
Liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943
Poland (1943)
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Resistance, Jewish
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The last day of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 16 May 1943
The Holocaust in Poland
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Creators:
German military photographers, 1939 --1945 (1939 --1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-25.05.10, NY Times article about the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943, 22 April 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An American New York Times article reporting the Secret Polish Radio asks for aid but is cut off, related to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
The New York Times
Secret Polish radio, 1943
American newspaper
American awareness of Nazi atrocities in Europe
Poland (1943)
United States (1939 -- 1945)
Creators:
The New York Times
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-25.05.11, Heavily armed German troops clear Muranowski Square of Jewish Resistance Fighters, April, 1943, April 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Heavily armed German troops clear Muranowski Square of Jewish Resistance Fighters in April 1943. Warsaw Ghetto, Poland.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The Holocaust in Poland
Jewish resistance
Jewish resistance and defiance
Muranowski Square (Warsaw: Poland)
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto, 1942 -- 1943
Poland (1939--1945)
Resistance, Jewish
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-25.05.12, The Monument of Ghetto Heroes, WarsawAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A plaque commemorating the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
Post-Holocaust Commemoration
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945), commemoration
Commemoration of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
The Monument of Ghetto Heros, Warsaw
Poland (1939 --1945)
Holocaust Memorialization
Warsaw Ghetto Memorial
Creators:
Jewish commemorative organizations (1945--present)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-25.05.13, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Photographs, Consolidated, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A consolidated collection of photographs of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April-May 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The Holocaust in Poland
Jewish resistance
Jewish resistance and defiance
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Resistance, Jewish
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Soldiers, German
Poland (1943)
Association of Jewish Resistance Fighters
Jewish resistance organizations in ghettos, Poland
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, combat tactics
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Jewish resistance members, male
Jewish resistance members, female
Photographs, Jewish resistance members
Creators:
Jewish resistance, photographers (1939-1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-25.05.14, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, two male resistance fighters, 1943, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photographe of two male resistance fighters holding guns during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The Holocaust in Poland
Jewish resistance
Jewish resistance and defiance
Jewish Combat Organziation (ZOB), members
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Resistance, Jewish
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1943)
Association of Jewish Resistance Fighters
Jewish resistance organizations in ghettos, Poland
Jewish resistance members, male
Photographs, Jewish resistance members
Creators:
Jewish resistance, photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-25.05.15, German soldiers watching buildings in the Warsaw ghetto burn during the uprising, 1943, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of German soldiers watching buildings in the Warsaw ghetto burn during the uprising, 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1943)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The Holocaust in Poland
Jewish resistance
Destruction of buildings during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Soldiers, German
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-25.05.16, Ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto after it was leveled by the Germans post-uprising, May 1943, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Photograph showing the remains of the Warsaw ghettto after it was destroyed and leveled by the Germans after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, May 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Poland (1943)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Poland)
The Holocaust in Poland
Jewish resistance
Destruction of buildings during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
German military operation against Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw ghetto, post-uprising and liquidation
Destruction of the Warsaw ghetto, post-uprising
Poland (1939--1945)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-25.05.17, Mordechaj Anielewicz with the members of Hashomer Hatzair in Warsaw, 1937, 1937Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Mordechaj Anielewicz with the members of Hashomer Hatzair in Warsa (Poland), including Sarenka Rachel Zylberberg, 1937.
Subject/Index Terms:
Mordechaj Anielewicz, commander of the Jewish Combat Organization and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Poland (1918--1939)
Warsaw (Poland)
Jewish resistance
Photographs, Jewish resistance members
Sarenka Rachel Zylberberg, organizer of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Hashomer Hatzair, Zionist-socialist youth movement
Poland, history
Jews in Poland, 1918--1939
Creators:
Jewish photographer, pre-war Poland (1918-1939)

Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG -25.01, Warsaw Ghetto, photodocuments, 1940 -- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG -25.02, Warsaw Ghetto, forced stripping photographs, ca 1943],
[Sub-Collection 3: RG-25.03, Warsaw Ghetto, Photographs of the Street-Scenes, 1940 -- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 4: RG-25.04, Documents Issued by German Authorities and Jewish Council of the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 -- 1943, 1940 --1943],
[Sub-Collection 5: RG-25.05, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April -- May 1943],
[Sub-Collection 6: RG-25.06, Warsaw ghetto, secondary photographs and documents, 1940 -- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 7: RG-25.07, Warsaw Ghetto, Wladyslaw Wójcik Collection],
[All]


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