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Atrocities and Perpetration, Collection of Photodocuments

Overview

Abstract

Scope and Contents

Administrative Information

Detailed Description

RG-23.01, Slovakian Jewry

RG-23.02, Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection

RG-23.03, Holocaust in France

RG-23.04, Holocaust in Greece

RG-23.05, Holocaust in Denmark

RG-23.06, Nazi Takeover of Czechoslovakia

RG-23.07, Dachau concentration camp

RG-23.08, Gross-Rosen concentration camp, deportation lists

RG-23.09, Bialystok ghetto

RG-23.10, Sachsenhausen concentration camp

RG-23.11, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the wake of liberation

RG-23.12, The Netherlands, German invasion

RG-23.13, Atrocities, mass killings in German-occupied Europe, Second World War.

RG-23.14, Holocaust of the Hungarian Jewry

RG-23.16, Minsk ghetto

RG-23.17, Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property

RG-23.18, Jewish Police in the ghettos

RG-23.19, Norway

RG-23.20, Lwow ghetto

RG-23.21, Camp scenes before the liberation

RG-23.22, Humiliation and mockery perpetrated by Germans

RG-23.23, Cracow ghetto

RG-23.24, Invasion of Poland

RG-23.25, Riga ghetto

RG-23.26, Sobibor concentration camp

RG-23.27, German invasion of Western Europe

RG-23.28, Deportation and transport scenes

RG-23.29, Theresienstadt

RG-23.30, Mauthausen

RG-23.31, Bulgaria

RG-23.32, Yugoslavia

RG-23.33, Treblinka

RG-23.34, Babi Yar

RG-23.35, Belgium

RG-23.36, Ukraine

RG-23.37, Vilna ghetto

RG-23.38, Nordhausen

RG-23.39, Munich Accord

RG-23.40, Varian Fry

RG-23.41, Warsaw Ghetto forced posing

RG-23.42, Belzec

RG-23.43, Drancy

RG-23.44, Drohobycz

RG-23.45, Einsatzgruppen

RG-23.46, False identity

RG-23.47, Galicia

RG-23.48, Invasion of the Soviet Union

RG-23.49, Janowska Camp

RG-23.50, Jasenovac concentration camp

RG-23.51, Jewish resistance

RG-23.53, Kovno ghetto

RG-23.54, Le Chambon sur Lignon, a town of refuge

RG-23.55, Lublin ghetto

RG-23.56, Maly Trostenets

RG-23.57, Medical experiments

RG-23.58, Rescue and aid

RG-23.52, Kindertransport



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Atrocities and Perpetration, Collection of Photodocuments, 1900-1948 | Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

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Collection Overview

Title: Atrocities and Perpetration, Collection of Photodocuments, 1900-1948Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Predominant Dates:1939 --1945

ID: RG-23/RG-23

Primary Creator: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

Extent: 0.0

Arrangement:

The arrangement scheme for the record group was imposed during processing in the absence of an original order. Materials are arranged by subject/creator, then by identifier, as assigned by the processor.

Record group is comprised of fifty-six collections: 1. Slovakian Jewry photographs; 2. Jerzy Tomaszewski collection; 3. France in wartime photographs; 4. Greece in wartime photographs; 5. Denmark in wartime photographs; 6. Czechoslovakia in wartime photographs; 7. Liberation of Dachau photographs; 8. Gross-Rosen transport lists; 9. Bialystok ghetto photographs; 10. Sachsenhausen photographs; 11. Bergen-Belson photographs; 12. The Netherlands in wartime photographs; 13. Atrocities and mass killings photographs; 14. Hungarian Jewry photographs; 15. Minsk ghetto photographs; 16. Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property photographs; 17. Jewish police photographs; 18. Norway in wartime photographs; 19. Collection of Lwów ghetto materials; 20. Camps before the liberation photographs; 21. Photographs of humiliation and mockery by Germans; 22. Cracow ghetto photographs and newspapers; 23. Invasion of Poland photographs; 24. Riga ghetto photographs; 25. Sobibor photographs; 26. Western Europe  in wartime photographs; 27. Deportation and transport photographs; 28. Theresienstadt photographs; 29. Mauthausen concentration camp and the aftermath of liberation photographs; 30. Bulgaria in wartime photographs; 31. Yugoslavia in wartime photographs; 32. Treblinka photographs; 33. Babi Yar photographs; 34. Breendonk internment camp photographs; 35. Collection of Ukraine in wartime materials; 36. Vilna ghetto photographs; 37. Nordhausen photographs; 38. Collection on Munich agreement; 39. Collection on Varian Fry; 40. Collection on forced posing in the Warsaw ghetto; 41. Belzec death camp photographs; 42. Drancy transit camp photographs; 43. Drohobycz photographs; 44. Einsatzgruppen photographs; 45. Collection on false identity; 46. Collection on Galicia in wartime; 47. Collection on the invasion of the Soviet Union; 48. Janowska camp photographs; 49. Jasenovac concentration camp photographs; 49. Collectoin on the Jewish resistance; 50. Kindertransport photographs; 51. Kovno ghetto photographs; 52. Le Chambon sur Lignon photographs; 53. Lublin ghetto photographs and map; 54. Maly Trostenets photographs; 55. Medical experiments photographs; 56. Rescue and aid photographs.

Languages: German, English, Polish, Russian, French

Abstract

This record group includes multiple collections of photo-documents reflecting the Nazi implementation of the Final Solution. The photographs depict anti-Jewish atrocities, mass killings, massacres, pogroms, and various ghetto and camp scenes. A number of photo-documents originate from the Alex Schwarzkopf Collection. These images reflect the horrors of the Nazi atrocities in Poland. In addition to highlighting the unbearable reality of  mundane life in the Warsaw Ghetto, the other documents shed light on mass deportations, and the aftermath of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Another personal collection is a small selection of photographs known as the Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection.

The other collections of this group are presented according to geo-political divisions. They contain secondary photo-documents from almost all German-occupied territories in Europe, including the scenes of the Babi Yar massacre in Kiev and the anti-Jewish atrocities and actions in the occupied Soviet territories.  Horrendous camp and ghetto scenes constitute sub-collections of their own right.

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This record group is comprised of multiple collections of (largely secondary) photo-documents reflecting the Nazi implementation of the Final Solution. The photographs depict anti-Jewish atrocities, mass killings, massacres, pogroms, and various ghetto and camp scenes. In addition to highlighting the unbearable reality of life in the Warsaw Ghetto, other documents shed light on mass deportations and the aftermath of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

Most collections in this record group are divided up according to geo-political divisions. They contain secondary photo-documents from events in almost all German-occupied territories in Europe, including scenes of the Babi Yar massacre in Kiev and the anti-Jewish atrocities and actions in the occupied Soviet territories.

Collection Historical Note

Compilation of largely secondary materials depicting the course of the annihilation of European Jewry.

RG-23.01- Slovakian Jewry (Pamphlet describes Jewish victims in Slovakia)

RG-23.01.01- Front page- “The Tragedy of Slovakian Jewry”

RG-23.01.02- Photograph, Sign reads that Jews are not allowed into a café

RG-23.01.03- Photograph, Entrance and a fence of a labor camp. Above, map of Slovakia with camp locations.

RG-23.01.04- Photo collage of Jews forced onto or out of train cars.

RG-23.01.05- Diagram, a deportation ratio of Slovakian Jewry to concentration camps.

RG-23.01.06- Photograph, three different groups of would-to-be camp prisoners. They begin in their regular clothing and then are shown stripped down to their undergarments and finally in prisoner camp uniforms. The caption reads- “The horror begins.”

RG-23.01.07- Photograph, pathway to a concentration camp.

RG-23.01.08- Poster, “Jews fight in the allied armies against Nazis.” The poster shows a map of Europe and different Allied flags.

RG-23.01.09- Photo collage, sorting through possessions

RG-23.01.10- Photograph, Victims of mobile killing units. The caption reads, “Work of an Einsatzkommando.” (Mobile killing unit)

RG-23.02- Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection

This PDF file contains four photographs as part of the Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection. They depict German soldiers and SS forcing Jewish men to march and perform different spectacles.

RG-23.03- France

RG-23.03.01- Photograph, German troops in France, 1940

RG-23.03.02- Photograph, German troops march into Paris, street view, June 1940

RG-23.03.03- Photograph, German troops marching by the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, June 1940, German Federal Archives

RG-23.03.04- Photograph, Jews rounded up for deportation, Paris 1942

RG-23.04- Greece

RG-23.04.01- Photograph, German soldiers raising the flag over the Acropolis, May 1941, German Federal Archives

RG-23.04.02- Photograph, Jewish leaders with Metropolitan, Thessaloniki

RG-23.04.03- Photograph, Jews of Greece being deported from Ionia, 1944

RG-23.04.04- Photograph, Rabbi Meir with the King of Greece, Thessaloniki

RG-23.04.05- Registration of the Jews of Thessaloniki, July 1942, German Federal Archives

RG-23.05- Denmark

RG-23.05.01- Photograph, a Danish fishing boat with Jewish refugees entering Swedish waters, October 1943

RG-23.05.02- A letter from Danish King, Christian X to Rabbi Malchior expressing support with regard to a fire set up by Danish Nazis, which destroyed Rabbi’s synagogue in December of 1941

RG-23.05.03- Photograph, Result of a railroad attack on a German freight transport in Denmark

RG-23.05.04- Photograph, Danes resist Nazis. Taken from an American journal August 1943

RG-23.05.05- Printing of Danish underground newspaper, “De Frie Danske”

RG-23.05.06- Photograph, the fishing boat, Astrid, is on display in Haifa, Israel as a memorial in recognition of the Danish rescue operation of October 1943

RG-23.05.07- Photograph, A street in chaos. General strike in Copenhagen initiated by the Danish Resistance, July 1944

RG-23.05.08- Photograph, German soldiers saluting the King of Denmark, Christian X

RG023.05.09- Photograph, German troops occupying Aaberraa, South Jutland, Denmark

RG-23.05.10- A Jewish deportee’s ID card. Despite Danish effort to rescue Jews, about 500 were deported to Theresienstadt

RG-23.05.11- Photograph, Members of the Danish Resistance disarm German military personnel on the streets of Copenhagen, 1943

RG-23.06- Czechoslovakia

RG-23.06.01- Photograph, An honor guard forms in the Prague Castle awaits Hitler’s visit, March 1939

RG-23.06.02- Photograph, Czechs watch German troops entering Prague, March 15, 1939

RG-23.06.03- Photograph, Edvard Benes, the second president of Czechoslovakia and President of Czechoslovakia in Exile, 1942, Library of Congress, Public domain

RG-23.06.04- Photograph, German troops enter Prague, March 15, 1939

RG-23.06.05- Photograph, Hitler reviews the honor guard inside the Prague Castle, March 1939, US National Archive

RG-23.06.06- Photograph, coffee break during the Munich Conference on Sudetenland

RG-23.06.07- Official Announcement in German and Czech, Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, November 1939, Bundesarchiv, 003-030-030, copyrighted

RG-23.06.08- Partition of Czechoslovakia, after March 1939, Wikimedia Commons

RG-23.06.09- Photograph, Emil Hacha, third president of Czechoslovakia, meeting with Hitler, Göring, and other officials, Berlin March 14, 1939

RG-23.06.10- Photograph, Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, Plaque, warning against sabotage, August 1939, Bundesarchiv, record Plak 003-030-026, Copyrighted

Rg-23.06.11- Photograph, First president of Czechoslovakia returns from exile, Tomas Masaryk. December 1948, GNU Free documentation license

RG-23.07- Dachau

RG-23.07.01- Photograph, Dachau concentration camp after liberation, an American soldier posing in front of the pile of corpses

RG-23.08- Gross-Rosen

RG-23.08.01- Transport list from Gross Rosen concentration camp to Bruenlitz, including males and females

RG-23.08.01.01- Transport list page 1

RG-23.08.01.02- Transport list page 2

RG-23.08.01.03- Transport list page 3

RG-23.08.01.04- Transport list page 4

RG-23.08.01.05- Transport list page 5

RG-23.08.01.06- Transport list page 6

RG-23.08.01.07- Transport list page 7

RG-23.08.01.08- Transport list page 8

RG-23.08.01.09- Transport list page 9

RG-23.08.01.10- Transport list page 10

RG-23.08.01.11- Transport list page 11

RG-23.08.01.12- Transport list page 12

RG-23.08.01.13- Transport list page 13

RG-23.08.01.14- Transport list page 14

RG-23.08.01.15- Transport list page 15

RG-23.09- Bialystok ghetto

RG-23.09.01- Bialystok Ghetto at the liquidation

RG-23.10- Sachsenhausen

RG-23.10.01- Photograph, Sachsenhausen, roll call, ca 1936

RG-23.11- Bergen-Belsen

RG-23.11.01- Photograph, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, prisoners are lined up

RG-23.11.02- Photograph, Inmates at Bergen-Belsen

RG-23.11.03- Photograph, Open mass grave

RG-23.11.04- Photograph, Bergen-Belsen after liberation, this is a view of the barracks and some former inmates.

RG-23.11.05- Photograph, A bulldozer pushing bodies into a mass grave, post-liberation

RG-23.11.06- Photograph, A woman helping to wash another woman in the aftermath of liberation.

RG-23.11.07- Photograph, A female victim of German atrocities, she has bandages on her face.

RG-23.11.08- Photograph, Emaciated female inmate after liberation.

RG-23.11.09- Photograph, Female camp guards of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp captured about liberation on April 18, 1945.

RG-23.11.10- Photograph, Female SS guards are compelled by British liberators to bury camp inmates in the mass grave, spring 1945.

RG-23.12- The Netherlands

RG-23.12.01- Photograph, Holland, deportation, a street scene

RG-23.12.02- Photograph, deportation from Westerbork transit camp, the Netherlands, USHMM copyrighted

RG-23.12.03- Photograph, the destroyed city of Rotterdam after the German bombing, May 1940, German Federal Archives

RG-23.12.04- Photograph, Poison gas chamber with a warning sign

RG-23.13- Atrocities and Mass Killings

RG-23.13.01- Photograph, Serbs dig their own grave before mass killing

Provenance- Jewish-Serbian Friendship Society Magazine, 282 Trino Way, Pacific Palisade, CA 90272

Acquisition date- 13 August 1990

RG-23.13.02- Photograph, Bodies on the Save River, Serbia

Provenance- Jewish-Serbian Friendship Society Magazine, 282 Trino Way, Pacific Palisade, CA 90272

Acquisition date- 13 August 1990

RG-23.13.03- Photograph, German soldiers near the mass killing site, Serbia

Provenance- Jewish-Serbian Friendship Society Magazine, 282 Trino Way, Pacific Palisade, CA 90272

Acquisition date- 13 August 1990

RG-23.13.04- Photograph, Prisoner taken to execution accompanied by a band of camp prisoners

RG-23.13.05- Ten photographs, “Atrocities and Perpetration”- German officers looking over dead bodies; Jewish women forced to march in a line, nude; Nazi officers cutting off the hair and beards of Jewish men; a dead body clinging to barbed wire; and two Jewish men are forced to dig their own grave in Poland.

RG-23.13.06- Five photographs, “Humiliation and forced labor”- Jews carrying wood and laboring; a German officer pointing his pistol at the head of a man on his knees, who presumably tried to plan the murder of camp personnel; scene of a camp with bodies lying on the ground; a Jewish man having his beard cut off; and German soldiers laughing at an elderly man.

RG-23.13.07- Photograph, a German firing squad on a street in Drohobycz takes aim at unseen victims (public domain).

RG-23.13.08- Photograph, German civilians carry the bodies of concentration camp prisoners to a mass grave that they were forced to dig.

RG-23.13.09- Photograph, German soldiers viewing a mass murder scene in a town square

RG-23.13.10- Photograph, a German soldier aims his rifle at a women and her child in Ukraine, 1941

RG-23.13.11- Photograph, Jews rounded up in a paddock in Sompolno, Poland in 1941

RG-23.13.12- Photograph, An emaciated former female prisoner of a concentration camp after liberation.

RG-23.13.13- Photograph, Zyclon B, manufactured by I.G. Farben Industries, on display at a museum

RG-23.13.14- Photoshop version of photo #7 in RG-23.13.05, Polish policemen, known as Policja Granatowa cut beards

RG-23.13.15- Execution scene in Poland- NO PHOTO

RG-23.13.16- German soldier cuts beard of a Jewish man, humiliation scene- NO PHOTO

RG-23.14- Hungarian Jewry

RG-23.14.01- Photograph, Scene of mass murder. The victims are from a Hungarian Jewish transport. On the back of the photograph there is a stamp- L.A.P.I Droits Reserves

Provenance- Michael Cotton, 655 N. Hayworth, # 806, tel.  323 651-5163

Acquisition date- 4 February 1985

RG-23.14.02- Photograph, Scene of mass murder. Fence in the background, likely outside a concentration camp. The victims are from a Hungarian Jewish transport. On the back of the photograph there is a stamp- L.A.P.I Droits Reserves

Provenance- Michael Cotton, 655 N. Hayworth, # 806, tel.  323 651-5163

Acquisition date- 4 February 1985

RG-23.14.03- Photograph, Hungarian police arrest Jewish resistance fighter, Robert Mandel in Budapest. USHMM, public domain.

RG-23.15- Photograph, Janowska Road Camp, Lviv, Camp Orchestra, Photo credit- Walka, Zaglada Zydow w Polsce, 1939-1945, No. 318, Poland

RG-23.16- Minsk Ghetto

RG-23.16.01- Photograph, Minsk ghetto, inside view

RG-23.16.02- Photograph, Masha Bruskina with partisans before execution

RG-23.17- Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property

RG-23.17.01- Photograph, Anti-Jewish sign on a Jewish business

RG-23.17.02- Photograph, Broken window at a Jewish business

RG-23.17.03- Photograph, The Brünn department store in Berlin, painted with signs, Jewish stars, and caricatures before it was Aryanized, 1938, YIVO archives

RG-23.17.04- Photograph, Hitler Youth members forcing Vienna Jews to scrub the streets, 1938

RG-23.17.05- Photograph, Vienna Jews scrubbing the sidewalks

RG-23.17.06- Photograph, A Jewish boy is forced to paint the entrance to his home with the word “Jude,” Vienna 1938

RG-23.17.07- Photograph, a public Nazi appeal to boycott Jewish businesses, 1 April 1933

RG-23.17.08- Photograph of a Nazi rally. The banners read, “The Jews are our misfortune, Women and girls, the Jews are your undoing.” Berlin, 1935

RG-23.17.09- Photograph of the Great Synagogue in Orienburger Strasse in flames. Kristallnacht took place on 9 November 1938. The burning synagogue shares the photo space with a Jewish rabbi or scholar holding the Torah.

RG-23.17.10- Warsaw, a fur shop, preparing for German requisitions Part of the Alex Schwarzkopf collection.

RG-23.18- Jewish Service to maintain order- Jewish Police (Ordungsdienst)

RG-23.18.01- Photograph, Jewish policemen at questioning, Zawodzie, Poland

RG-23.18.02- Slide, Warsaw Ghetto, Jewish policeman regulating ghetto traffic

RG-23.18.03- Photograph, Jewish policemen convoy a group of Jews, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection

RG-23.18.04- A Jewish policeman with his wife and son in the Lodz Ghetto

RG-23.18.05- Photograph, roll call of Jewish police in Krakow ghetto, Police chief S. Szapiro straightening a policeman’s cap

RG-23.18.06- Photograph, Jewish policemen in the Krakow ghetto, second from the right is Simcha Spiro, head of the Jewish police

RG-23.18.07- Photograph, Jewish police arresting two Jewish youths for smuggling in the Warsaw ghetto

RG-23.18.08- Photograph, Jewish order police in Lodz ghetto

RG-23.18.09- Photograph, Jewish order police on snow removal duty in Lodz

RG-23.18.10- Photograph, Jewish order police at attention in May 1941. Copyrighted by the Bundesarchiv. (Warsaw)

RG-23.18.11- Photograph, Jewish police action (running) in the Warsaw ghetto

RG-23.18.12- Photograph, Jewish service to maintain order, Ordungsdienst. A man is reading a paper to others.

RG-23.18.13- Photograph, Romek Kaliski, member of the Jewish order police in the Lodz ghetto

RG-23.19- Norway

RG-23.20.01- Photograph, Memorial plaque at Stabekk elementary school commemorating three Jewish children deported and murdered in Auschwitz, 1942, Norway, conditional public domain

RG-23.20- Lwów Ghetto

RG-23.20.01- Copy of a document, Lwów ghetto, Search advertisement for a Jewish female under false identity

RG-23.20.02- Photograph, German soldiers entering the city, passing by Zamarstynów Street

RG-23.20.03- Official announcement in German, Ukrainian and Polish on the establishment of a ghetto in Lviv, November 1941, copyrighted by the Bundesarchiv, 003-037-085

RG-23.21- Camp scenes before the liberation

RG-23.21.01- Arriving to a camp

RG-23.21.02- Concentration camp Stop sign, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection – NO PHOTO

RG-23.22- Humiliation and mockery on the part of Germans

RG-23.22.01- Photograph, a Jewish man in religious attire prays over the dead, while the German soldiers watch and laugh

RG-23.23- Cracow ghetto

RG-23.23.01- Photograph, Cracow ghetto, entrance

RG-23.23.02- Photograph, Cracow streetcar worker hanging a sign separating the Jewish and non-Jewish passengers

RG-23.23.03- Photograph, Decree of the Governor of the Generalgouvernement that evicts all Jews from Cracow who do not have special permission documents.

RG-23.23.04- Photograph, Jewish family before deportation from the Cracow ghetto

RG-23.23.05- Photograph, Jewish couple in the Cracow ghetto walk down a street, the woman is holding a milk jug

RG-23.23.06- Photograph, Belongings of the deportees from the Cracow ghetto to the Belzec extermination camp are left strewn about on the street.

RG-23.23.07- Photograph, Elderly Jews in the Cracow ghetto partaking in forced labor

RG-23.23.08- Photograph, Hostages lined up against a wall with their hands up

RG-23.23.09- Photograph, Jewish policemen. Second from the right is Simcha Spiro, head of the Jewish police.

RG-23.23.10- Photograph, Jews deported from the Cracow ghetto

RG-23.23.11- Photograph, sign in a public park in German and Polish that reads, “Jews are not allowed.”

RG-23.23.12- Photograph, Jews are being deported around the Sukienice Square

RG-23.23.13- Photograph, Decree declaring a ghetto in Cracow around which are maps of the ghetto

RG-23.23.14- Photograph, Jews deported from the Cracow ghetto on truck

RG-23.23.15- Photograph, broken and smashed tombstones in the Jewish cemetery in Cracow

RG-23.23.16- Photograph of two men- Dolek Liebeskind and Szimszon Draenger who were members of the Jewish resistance in the Cracow ghetto

RG-23.23.17- Photograph, German soldiers entering the Cracow ghetto with three elderly Jews running away from them.

RG-23.23.18- Photograph, Graffiti on the wall of cell No. 2 in the Gestapo building at 2 Pomorska St, Cracow

RG-23.23.19- Photograph, people taking possessions to the ghetto out of the Jewish quarter called Kazimierz

RG-23.23.20- Photograph, Ordinance issued by Dr. Waechter, Governor of the Generalgouvernement regarding the eviction of the Jews from the city of Cracow

RG-23.23.21- Photograph of a performance in the Cracow ghetto, a German officer and a Jewish policeman sit in the front row

RG-23.23.22- Scan of Gazeta Zydowska Newspaper in Cracow, 1940-1941, 35 pages

RG-23.23.22.01- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 1

RG-23.23.22.02- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 2

RG-23.23.22.03- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 3

RG-23.23.22.04- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 4

RG-23.23.22.05- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 5

RG-23.23.22.06- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 6

RG-23.23.22.07- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 7

RG-23.23.22.08- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 8

RG-23.23.22.09- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 9

RG-23.23.22.10- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 10

RG-23.23.22.11- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 11

RG-23.23.22.12- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 12

RG-23.23.22.13- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 13

RG-23.23.22.14- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 14

RG-23.23.22.15- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 15

RG-23.23.22.16- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 16

RG-23.23.22.17- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 17

RG-23.23.22.18- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 18

RG-23.23.22.19- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 19

RG-23.23.22.20- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 20

RG-23.23.22.21- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 21

RG-23.23.22.22- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 22

RG-23.23.22.23- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 23

RG-23.23.22.24- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 24

RG-23.23.22.25- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 25

RG-23.23.22.26- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 26

RG-23.23.22.27- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 27

RG-23.23.22.28- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 28

RG-23.23.22.29- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 29

RG-23.23.22.30- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 30

RG-23.23.22.31- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 31

RG-23.23.22.32- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 32

RG-23.23.22.33- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 33

RG-23.23.22.34- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 34

RG-23.23.22.35- Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, page 35

RG-23.24- Invasion of Poland

RG-23.24.01- Slide, A ghetto scene- order for a transport

RG-23.24.02- Photograph, German soldiers cuts off a beard of Jewish man, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection- NO PHOTO

RG-23.24.03- Photograph, Execution scene, Poland- NO PHOTO

RG-23.24.04- Photograph of an alley or perhaps part of a ghetto in Czeladz, Poland in 1941

RG-23.24.05- Photograph, German police patrol at Wawel Castle in Krakow in 1939. Copyrighted by the Bundesarchiv (121-0293).

RG-23.24.06- Photograph, Poster reads “Poland, First to Fight”

RG-23.24.07- Photograph, The Royal Castle in Warsaw burning after German shellfire on 17 September 1939. (public domain)

RG-23.24.08- Photograph, The signing of the Soviet- German non-aggression pact- Molotov- Ribbentrop Pact. This is from the U.S. National Archives.

RG-23.24.09- Photograph, German soldiers parade through Warsaw on 5 October 1939. (Public domain)

RG-23.24.10- Photograph, Jewish prisoners in Warsaw liberate by the Polish Home Army Soldiers. Warsaw Uprising. (public domain)

RG-23.24.11- Photograph, Jews from villages are forces to march into a ghetto.

RG-23.24.12- Drawing, Mass execution of the Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn Forest in Russia in April of 1940. Copyrighted by the Bundesarchiv.

RG-23.24.13- Photograph, “Meeting of the allies,” a German and a Soviet officer shake hands at the end of the new partition in Poland in September of 1939. TASS (public domain)

RG-23.24.14- Photograph, Polish prisoners of war captured by the Soviet Army after the invasion of Poland in September 1939 (public domain)

RG-23.24.15- Photograph, a German officer takes picture of the religious Jews in Zablocie, Poland.

RG-23.25- Riga Ghetto

RG-23.25.01- Photograph, Riga ghetto, an inside view

RG-23.25.02- Photograph, local women posing with entering German soldiers, Riga, Bundesarchiv, photo 183-L19397

RG-23.26- Sobibor

RG-23.25.01- Photograph, memorial plaque at Sobibor death camp

RG-23.25.02- Photograph, Sobibor camp monument

RG-23.27- Western Europe

RG-23.27.01- Deportation of Jews from a West European country, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection – NO PHOTO

RG-23.28- Deportation and transport scenes

RG-23.28.01- Arrival of a transport- NO PHOTO

RG-23.28.02- Photograph, deportation of German Jews to the east, undated

RG-23.28.03- Photograph, transport to Treblinka at the cattle cars

RG-23.28.04- Photograph, Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz-Birkenau

RG-23.29- Theresienstadt-

RG-23.29.01- Photograph, Theresienstadt, musical performance

RG-23.29.02- Photograph, Theresienstadt, entrance to the ghetto, a former garrison town

RG-23.29.03- Photograph, Theresienstadt, in the offices of ghetto establishments

RG-23.29.04- Photograph, Theresienstadt, gate with “Arbeit macht frei” inscription.

RG-23.30- Mauthausen Concentration Camp and the aftermath of liberation

RG-23.30.01- Photograph, Civilians of Mauthausen making coffins for the former inmates of the Mauthausen Concentration Camp

RG-23.30.02- Photograph, Slave laborers working at the granite work sites near Mauthausen.

RG-23.30.03- Photograph, an initial memorial site at Mauthausen. Part of the Alex Schwartzkopf collection.

RG-23.31- Bulgaria

RG-23.31.01- Photograph, Jews from Sofia are dispatched to countryside for forced labor

RG-23.31.02- Photograph, Bulgarian Jews building a road in a forced labor brigade. This image is USHMM copyrighted.

RG-23.31.03- Photograph, Bulgarian Jews working on a road construction project in a forced labor brigade. This image is USHMM copyrighted.

RG-23.31.04- Photograph, Jewish and Bulgarian soldiers posing outside a “canteen.” This image is USHMM copyrighted.

RG-23.31.05- Photograph, Jewish forced laborers posing next to a truck in Bulgaria. This image is USHMM copyrighted.

RG-23.32- Yugoslavia

RG-23.32.01- Photograph, Jewish partisan in a Yugoslavian partisan unit units in German-occupied or controlled countries

RG-23.33- Treblinka

RG-23.33.01- Photograph, pile of shoes left by the gassed prisoners at the Treblinka camp

RG-23.34- Babi Yar

RG-23.34.01- Photograph, Jews marching towards the ravine of Babi Yar on 29 September, 1941

RG-23.34.02- Photograph, Jews at Babi Yar before the execution

RG-23.34.03- Photograph, public German order to Kiev Jews to report at the collection point on 29 September 1941 in Russian, Ukrainian and German.

RG-23.34.04- Photograph, Dina Pronicheva, a Jewish survivor of the Babi Yar massacre. She is testifying at the war crimes trial in Kiev.

RG-23.34.05- Photograph, women sitting in front of soldiers at Babi Yar

RG-23.35- Belgium- The Breendonk Internment Camp

RG-23.35.01- Photograph, courtyard of the Breendonk internment camp, Belgium

RG-23.35.02- Photograph, entrance to the Breedonk internment camp, in its original state

RG-23.35.03- Photograph, Entrance to the Breedonk internment camp memorial campsite in Belgium, modern photo.

RG-23.35.04- Photograph, Warning sign at the Breendonk internment camp in Belgium. It reads, “Whoever steps beyond this border will be shot.”

RG-23.35.05- Photograph, Fort van Breendonk as it is now (conditional public domain)

RG-23.36- Ukraine

RG-23.36.01- Photograph, Before mass shooting, Jews are dig a common grave. Strove, Ukraine in July 1941, German Federal Archive

RG-23.36.02- Photograph, Formation of the SS Galizien division 1943, Kolomyja, Galicia

RG-23.36.03-Photograph, Galician volunteers to the 14 Waffen SS Division marching on Kosciuszko St. in Sanok, May 1943, public domain

RG-23.36.04- Photograph, Hans Frank, General Governor of the Generalgouvernement, before the installation of the volunteers to the Galizien Division, Sanok, May 1943, public domain

RG-23.36.05- Poster calling for volunteers to the Galizien Division to fight against Bolshevism, 1943, Galicia, copyrighted material

RG-23.36.06- Poster in German and Ukrainian appealing to join the Galizien Division, Sanok, Western Galicia, Poland, May 1943, Sanok Historical Museum, public domain

RG-23.36.07- Reichskommissariat, Ukraine map

RG-23.36.08- Photograph, shooting of women and children from the Mizoch ghetto, October 1942, Ukraine

RG-23.36.09- Photograph, SS Galizien division 1943

RG-23.36.10- Ukrainian newspaper Wolyn, Kiev liberated, 30 September 1941

RG-23.37- Vilna Ghetto

RG-23.37.01- Photograph, entrance to the Vilna Ghetto

RG-23.38- Nordhausen

RG-23.38.01- Photograph, German civilians digging mass graves for the Jewish inmates of Nordhausen

RG-23.38.02- Photograph, Nordhausen concentration camp, post-liberation

RG-23.39- Munich Accord

RG-23.39.01- Photograph, Before signing the Munich Agreement., from left to right- Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, Ciano. German Federal Archive

RG-23.39.02- Photograph, Crowds of Sudeten Germans gather in the Cheb Market Square to greet German Troops, October 13 1938, Illustrierte Beobachter

RG-23.39.03- Photograph, Hitler is greeted by Sudetenland Germans in Cheb, October 1939, German Federal Archives, public domain

RG-23.39.04- Map of Post-Munich Europe, 1938-1939, GNU free documentation license

RG-23.39.05- word document explaining the Map of Post Munich Europe

RG-23.39.06- Word document containing the Munich Pact text, September 29

RG-23.39.07- Newsletter, “Parole der Woche zum Sudetenland.” German Federal Archive, record Plak 003-009-110, copyrighted

RG-23.39.08- Photo, people of Cheb, Sudetenland salute the German troops entering the town in October of 1938. A mixed reaction is seen. German Federal Archive, public domain

RG-23.40- Varian Fry

RG-23.40.01- A letter by Varian Fry to the American consul to Vichy France seeking help in obtaining an exit visa for Walter Meyerhof, USHMM, 45060, copyrighted

RG-23.40.01- An advertisement for a lecture series given by Varian Fry in New York, USHMM, 15048, not copyrighted

RG-23.40.02- Photo, Varian Fry walking in the street in Marseilles, USHMM 01230, not copyrighted

RG-23.41- Forced Posing in the Warsaw Ghetto

RG-23.41.01- A woman without a top, surrounded by soldiers.

RG-23.41.02- A soldier forcing a woman to strip.

RG-23.41.03- A woman on the floor, removing or putting on her socks.

RG-23.41.04- The same woman standing up in the street.

RG-23.41.05- A woman with her elbow raised and men in the background on the street.

RG-23.41.06- A soldier forcing a woman to strip in the street.

RG-23.41.07- Two soldiers forcing two women to strip.

RG-23.41.08- A woman standing in the street without a top as a soldier in the back keeps guard.

RG-23.42- Belzec Death Camp

RG-23.42.01- Photograph, Belzec death camp, SS and Ukrainian guards posing at the camp

RG-23.43- Drancy

RG-23.43.01- Photograph, Drancy transit camp near Paris, „apparently public domain“

RG-23.43.02- Photograph, Drancy transit camp, a view of people and the building

RG-23.44- Drohobycz

RG-23.44.01- Self-portrait of Bruno Schulz

RG-23.44.02- Photograph, Bruno Schulz, Drohobycz, late 1930s

RG-23.44.03- Photograph, deportation of Drohobycz Jews

RG-23.44.04- Photograph, Drohobycz Rynek Square, ca. 1900

RG-23.45- Einsatzgruppen

RG-23.45.01- Photograph, an ordinary German soldier murdering mother and child, Ukraine, ca. 1941

RG-23.45.02- Photograph, Jews from Lubny in Ukraine were order to the open field before they were executed by the Einsatzgruppen commando, October 1941. Wiesbaden Archive

RG-23.46- False Identity

RG-23.46.01- A false change of address form for Fanny Tennenbaum under the name of Franciszka Wieczorkowska, near Lwow. USHMM copyrighted

RG-23.47- Galicia

RG-23.47.01- Announcement to the population of Lwow county form the head of city administration Bauer. It was part of the new administrative division in September of 1941. Bundesarchiv Plak 003-036-159

RG-23.47.02- Ordinance issued by the district head to the officials of Rawa Ruska in order to establish a Judenrat in October of 1941. Bundesarchiv 003-037-022, copyrighted

RG-23.47.03- Ordinance by Governor of Eastern Galicia, Dr. Lasch for the city of Lemberg in November of 1941. Bundesarchiv, 003-037-035, copyrighted

RG-23.47.04- Order of curfew in Lemberg for Jews, non-Jews and public establishments put in place in August of 1941. Bundesarchiv 003-036-118, copyrighted

RG-23.47.05- Oder for the Jewish population in Lwow in German, Ukrainian and Polish from August 1942. Bundesarchiv Plak 003-037-083

RG-23.47.06- City Ordinance, Lemberg on the registration of alien residents, December 1941, Bundesarchiv Plak 003-036-125, copyrighted

RG-23.47.07- Appeal to the rural population of Galicia, in German, Ukrainian and Polish, August 1941, Bundesarchiv Plak 003-036-121, copyrighted

RG-23.47.08- Appeal of warning to German soldiers. Galicia, 1941, Bundesarchiv Plak 003-036-124, copyrighted

RG-23.47.09- Announcement in German, Ukrainian and Polish, Sanok, Lisko in October of 1939, Bundesarchiv 003-036-107, copyrighted

RG-23.47.10- images folder- contains one photo which is an ordinance by Governor of Eastern Galicia, Dr. Lasch for the city of Lemberg, November 1941, Bundesarchiv 003-037-035 copyrighted

RG-23.48- Invasion of the Soviet Union

RG-23.48.01- Word document which describes the Diary of Tania Savicheva, who was a pupil in Leningrad.

RG-23.48.02- Photograph, Pages from Tania Savicheva’s diary, which includes a picture of presumably, Tania.

RG-23.48.03- “Operation Barbarossa” The German code name for the plan of invasion of the Soviet Union. This scan is one page from the document (public domain).

RG-23.48.04- Photograph, Soviet prisoners of war captured near Minsk on July 2 1941. German Federal Archive, Bild 146-1982-077-11

RG-23.49- Janowska Camp

RG-23.49.01- Photograph, Bone crushing machine used to grind human bones for fertilizer in the city of Lwow after liberation in August 1944. USHMM

RG-23.49.02- Photograph, Janowska Camp in Lviv, the Camp orchestra.

RG-23.49.03- Photograph, Janowska Camp Orchestra.

RG-23.49.04- Photograph, pile of shoes of the victims of the Janowska concentration camp in Lwow, found after liberation.

RG-23.50- Jasenovac concentration camp

RG-23.50.01- Photograph, Croatian soldier stands among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp.

RG-23.50.02- Photograph, children from Kozare at the Jasenovac concentration camp (public domain).

RG-23.50.03- Photograph, people walking down the street as part of the deportation into the Jasenovac camp circa 1942, USHMM.

RG-23.50.04- Photograph, Serbs in the camp in Croatia, USHMM

RG-23.50.05- Photograph, Ustasa guards eat at the table. In the foreground on can see belongings of prisoners who were deported to the Jasenovac camp.

RG-23.50.06- Photograph of Ustasa guards searching new prisoners at the camp, USHMM.

RG-23.50.07- Photograph, Ustasa militia execute people near the camp, USHMM

RG-23.50.08- Photograph, aerial view of the Jasenovac camp in Croatia, 1941-1942.

RG-23.51- Jewish resistance

RG-23.51.01- Dolek Liebeskind and Szomszon Draenger, member of the Jewish resistance in the Cracow ghetto

RG-23.51.02- Graffiti on the wall of Cell no.2 in the Gestapo building at 2 Pomorska Street, Cracow

RG-23.52- Kindertransport

RG-23.52.01- Photograph, of the Kindertransport. An English policeman meets Jewish kids arriving from Nazi Germany in December of 1938, Bundesarchiv photo 183-S69-273, copyrighted

RG-23.53- Kovno Ghetto

RG-23.53.01- Photograph, deportation from Kovno ghetto

RG-23.53.02- Photograph, of a workshop of the ghetto

RG-23.53.03- Photograph, of the children’s school in the ghetto

RG-23.54- Le Chambon sur Lignon, a town of refuge

RG-23.54.01-Photograph, Jewish youth from La Guespy children’s home in Le Chambon sur Lignon posing in the snow, USHMM, 83599, copyrighted.

RG-23.54.02- Photograph, Jewish youth from the same children’s home pose, USHMM, 03696, copyrighted.

RG-23.54.03- Photograph, Juliette Usach and four boys sit beneath a sign to Le Chambon sur Lignon, USHMM, copyrighted.

RG-23.54.04- Photograph, (left) Pastor Andre Trocme, (center) Roger Darcissa, and (right) Pastor Edouard Theis, USHMM copyrighted.

RG-23.54.05-Photograph, view of Le Chambon sur Lignon in southern France, USHMM, copyrighted.

RG-23.55- Lublin Ghetto

RG-23.55.01- Photograph, A Jewish man is questioned by a German policeman in Lublin in December of 1940. German Federal Archive, copyrighted

RG-23.55.02- Photograph, street scene in Lublin Ghetto in December of 1940, German Federal Archive, copyrighted.

RG-23.55.03- Photograph, Jewish men in the Lublin Castle prison, December 1940, German Federal Archive, copyrighted

RG-23.55.04- Photograph, Judenrat in the Lublin Ghetto, entrance

In 1942.

RG-23.55.06- Photograph, Lublin ghetto, German soldiers discover Jews in a hideout.

RG-23.55.07- Photograph, Lublin ghetto, Lubartowska Street.

RG-23.56- Maly Trostenets

RG-23.56.01- Photograph, entrance to the camp Maly Trostenets, auxiliary police are posing

RG-23.56.02- Maly Trostenets death camp sign warning to not enter

RG-23.57- Medical Experiments

RG-23.57.01- Photograph, victims of Dr. Mengele’s medical experiments, Auschwitz-Birkenau

RG-23.58- Rescue and Aid

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RG-23.58.01- Photograph, A group of Hungarian Jews rescued by Raoul Wallenberg from deportation, Budapest in November of 1944. USHMM

RG-23.58.02- Portrait of Chuine (Sempto) and Yukiko Sugihara, Public domain

RG-23.58.03- Photograph, Hungarian Jews wait at the Swedish legation in Budapest in a hope of obtaining Swedish protective papers, 1944, public domain.

RG-23.58.04- Photograph, Jewish refugees at the gate of the Japanese consulate in Kaunas, Lithuania in July of 1940, public domain.

RG-23.58.05- Raoul Wallenberg distributes protective passes at the Jozsefvarosi train station. Pictured to the right with his hands clasped behind his back. USHMM.

RG-23.58.06- Raoul Wallenberg, passport photograph, June of 1944. USHMM, public domain.

RG-23.58.07- Sempto (Chuine) Sugiuhara portrait, public domain.

Administrative Information

Repository: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

Access Restrictions: No restrictions

Use Restrictions:

Copyrighted materials, credits to and references to the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust are required

Digital copies might be available upon request

Acquisition Method: The formation of this record group dates to the time of exhibit-formation for the new Museum in Pan Pacific Park, which opened in 2010.

Preferred Citation: RG-23, Photo-Documents of Atrocities and Perpetration, Ghetto and Camp Scenes. Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust Archive.

Processing Information: Materials are primarily described using the local descriptive standards of the LA Museum of the Holocaust.


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-23.01, Slovakian Jewry, 1940 -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-23.02, Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection, 1940 -- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 3: RG-23.03, Holocaust in France, 1940 -- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 4: RG-23.04, Holocaust in Greece, 1920s -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 5: RG-23.05, Holocaust in Denmark, 1940 -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 6: RG-23.06, Nazi Takeover of Czechoslovakia, 1939 -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 7: RG-23.07, Dachau concentration camp, 1945],
[Sub-Collection 8: RG-23.08, Gross-Rosen concentration camp, deportation lists, 1945],
[Sub-Collection 9: RG-23.09, Bialystok ghetto, 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 10: RG-23.10, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, 1936--1945],
[Sub-Collection 11: RG-23.11, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the wake of liberation, circa 1943--1945],
[Sub-Collection 12: RG-23.12, The Netherlands, German invasion, circa 1940--1945],
[Sub-Collection 13: RG-23.13, Atrocities, mass killings in German-occupied Europe, Second World War., circa 1939--1945],
[Sub-Collection 14: RG-23.14, Holocaust of the Hungarian Jewry, circa 1940--1945],
[Sub-Collection 16: RG-23.16, Minsk ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 17: RG-23.17, Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property, circa 1941],
[Sub-Collection 18: RG-23.18, Jewish Police in the ghettos, circa 1942],
[Sub-Collection 19: RG-23.19, Norway, June 2008],
[Sub-Collection 20: RG-23.20, Lwow ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 21: RG-23.21, Camp scenes before the liberation, circa 1943--1945],
[Sub-Collection 22: RG-23.22, Humiliation and mockery perpetrated by Germans, circa 1933-1945],
[Sub-Collection 23: RG-23.23, Cracow ghetto, circa 1939-- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 24: RG-23.24, Invasion of Poland, circa 1939- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 25: RG-23.25, Riga ghetto, circa 1941- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 26: RG-23.26, Sobibor concentration camp, circa 1942- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 27: RG-23.27, German invasion of Western Europe, circa 1940],
[Sub-Collection 28: RG-23.28, Deportation and transport scenes, circa 1939-1944],
[Sub-Collection 29: RG-23.29, Theresienstadt, circa 1941-1945],
[Sub-Collection 30: RG-23.30, Mauthausen, circa 1938-1945],
[Sub-Collection 31: RG-23.31, Bulgaria, circa 1940-1944],
[Sub-Collection 32: RG-23.32, Yugoslavia, undated],
[Sub-Collection 33: RG-23.33, Treblinka, circa 1945],
[Sub-Collection 34: RG-23.34, Babi Yar, circa 1941],
[Sub-Collection 35: RG-23.35, Belgium, circa 1940--1944],
[Sub-Collection 36: RG-23.36, Ukraine, circa 1939-1944],
[Sub-Collection 37: RG-23.37, Vilna ghetto, circa September 1941- September 1943],
[Sub-Collection 38: RG-23.38, Nordhausen, circa 1943-1945],
[Sub-Collection 39: RG-23.39, Munich Accord, circa 1938-1939, 2010],
[Sub-Collection 40: RG-23.40, Varian Fry, circa 1940-1967],
[Sub-Collection 41: RG-23.41, Warsaw Ghetto forced posing, circa 1940-1943],
[Sub-Collection 42: RG-23.42, Belzec, circa 1942-1943],
[Sub-Collection 43: RG-23.43, Drancy, circa 1941-1944],
[Sub-Collection 44: RG-23.44, Drohobycz, circa 1900- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 45: RG-23.45, Einsatzgruppen, 1941],
[Sub-Collection 46: RG-23.46, False identity, 1943],
[Sub-Collection 47: RG-23.47, Galicia, 1939-1942],
[Sub-Collection 48: RG-23.48, Invasion of the Soviet Union, circa 1940--1942],
[Sub-Collection 49: RG-23.49, Janowska Camp, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 50: RG-23.50, Jasenovac concentration camp, 1941--1945],
[Sub-Collection 51: RG-23.51, Jewish resistance, circa 1941--1945],
[Sub-Collection 53: RG-23.53, Kovno ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 54: RG-23.54, Le Chambon sur Lignon, a town of refuge, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 55: RG-23.55, Lublin ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 56: RG-23.56, Maly Trostenets, 1942--1943],
[Sub-Collection 57: RG-23.57, Medical experiments, circa 1944],
[Sub-Collection 58: RG-23.58, Rescue and aid, circa 1940--1944],
[Folder 52: RG-23.52, Kindertransport, circa 1938--1940],
[All]

Sub-Collection 1: RG-23.01, Slovakian Jewry, 1940 -- 1945Add to your cart.

Some 5,000 Jews emigrated before the outbreak of World War II, but most were killed in the Holocaust. After the Slovak Republic proclaimed its independence in March 1939 under the protection of Nazi Germany, Slovakia began a series of measures aimed against the Jews in the country, first excluding them from the military and government positions. The Hlinka's Guard began to attack Jews, and the "Jewish Code" was passed in September 1941. Resembling the Nuremberg Laws, the Code required that Jews wear a yellow armband, and were banned from intermarriage and many jobs. By 1940, more than 6,000 Jews had emigrated.

The pro-Nazi regime of President Jozef Tiso, a Catholic priest, agreed to deport its Jews as part of the Nazi Final Solution.

By October 1941, 15,000 Jews were expelled from Bratislava; many were sent to labor camps. Originally, the Slovak government tried to make a deal with Germany in October 1941 to deport its Jews as a substitute for providing Slovak workers to help the war effort. After the Wannsee Conference, the Germans agreed to the Slovak proposal, and a deal was reached where the Slovak Republic would pay for each Jew deported, and, in return, Germany promised that the Jews would never return to the republic. The initial terms were for "20,000 young, strong Jews", but the Slovak government quickly agreed to a German proposal to deport the entire population for "evacuation to territories in the east".

The deportations of Jews from Slovakia started on 25 March 1942, but halted on 20 October 1942 after a group of Jewish citizens, led by Gisi Fleischmann and Rabbi Michael Ber Weissmandl, built a coalition of concerned officials from the Vatican and the government, and, through a mix of bribery and negotiation, was able to stop the process. By then, however, some 58,000 Jews had already been deported, mostly to Auschwitz, as forced labourers for German armament factories, at least this was what Tiso and the Slovak government presumed it to be. Slovak government officials filed complaints against Germany, when it became clear that many of the previously deported Slovakian Jews had been shot in mass executions.

Jewish deportations resumed on 30 September 1944, when the Soviet army reached the Slovak border, and the Slovak National Uprising took place. As a result of these events, Germany decided to occupy all of Slovakia and the country lost its independence. During the German occupation, another 13,500 Jews were deported and 5,000 were imprisoned. Deportations continued until 31 March 1945. In all, German and Slovak authorities deported about 70,000 Jews from Slovakia; about 65,000 of them were murdered or died in concentration camps. The overall figures are inexact, partly because many Jews did not identify themselves, but one 2006 estimate is that approximately 105,000 Slovak Jews, or 77% of their prewar population, died during the war.

After the war, the number of Jews in Slovakia was estimated to 25,000. Most of them decided to emigrate. In 1948, Communist rule was established, lasting until 1989, and little or no Jewish life existed. Many Jews emigrated to Israel or the United States to regain their freedom of religion. In 1992, with the peaceful breakup of Czechoslovakia and Slovakian independence in 1993, there was some resurgence in Jewish life. However, most Jews were elderly, and younger ones largely assimilated through intermarriage.

Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Secondary Publications
Creators:
Federation of Bratislava Jewish Community (1940--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.01.01, Front page, The Tragedy of Slovakian Jewry, 1949Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The Tragedy of Slovak Jewry – photographs and documents, published by the Federation of the Bratislava Communities Documentation Project. [Bratislava, 1949].
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Creators:
Federation of Bratislava Communities (1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Federation of Bratislava Jewish Community (1940--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.01.02, Bratislava, a photograph, sign reads that Jews are not allowed into a café, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of a sign that reads that Jews were not allowed into a cafe, as a result of the Nuremberg Laws.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.01.03, Photograph, Entrance or fence of a labor camp. Above, map of Slovakia with camp locations, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photo of a Nazi soldier standing guard outside a labor camp. Attached to the top of the photo is a map of Slovakia and the camp locations.
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.01.04, Collage, Deportation scenes, circa 1942-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A collage of Jews being deported onto or out of train cars
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.01.05, Scheme, of the routes of deportation of Slovak Jews, diagram, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This document is a diagram showing the deportation of Slovak Jews according by city, and to which concentration camps they were deported to.
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
deportation of Slovakian Jews
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.01.06, 'The Horror Begins', circa 1942-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Slovakian Jews going through the process of becoming prisoners and so the title of this photograph is "The Horror Begins."
Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Photographs, concentration camps
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.01.07, Pathway to a concentration camp, circa 1942-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Slovokian Jews awaiting entry into a concentration/labor camp.
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
concentration camp photographs
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.01.08, Numbers of Jews fighting in the allied armies against Nazis, circa 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A poster showing the number of Jews within each country fighting in the allied armies against the Nazis.
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Allied force, Jewish
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.01.09, Deportees stripped of their possessions, circa 1942-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A couple of pictures showing piles of luggages and suitcases that once belonged to the deportees. A group of Jewish workers, sort through what remains.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
concentration camp photographs
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.01.10, Mass killing, Perpetrated by Einsatzkommando, circa 1942-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Bodies lay on top of a cart. The mass killings were perpretrated by the Einsatzkommando, the Nazi mobile killing squads.
Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust in Slovakis, 1940 -- 1945
Jews of Slovakia, 1940 -- 1945
Holocaust in Slovakia, 1940--1945
Einsatzkommando
concentration camp photographs
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 2: RG-23.02, Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection, 1940 -- 1944Add to your cart.
Jerzy Tomaszewski is a Polish retired World War II photographer. He is best known for his collection of photographs that he took of the Warsaw Uprising. Within this collection are photographs, depicting atrocities and perpetration in Warsaw ghetto.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw ghetto
Warsaw (Poland)
Creators:
Tomaszewski, Jerzy (1924--)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.02.01, Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection, ca 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This document is a collection of four photographs showing the gathering of Jews by Nazi forces in Poland, Jerzy Tomaszewski collection.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw ghetto
Warsaw (Poland)
Nazi anti-Jewish measures, actions and legislations
Stormtroopers (SA), paramilitary wing of the Nazi party
German Soldiers
Creators:
Tomaszewski, Jerzy (1924--)
Sub-Collection 3: RG-23.03, Holocaust in France, 1940 -- 1944Add to your cart.

German invasion of France and deportations of Jews.

In the Second World War, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the successful German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armored units pushed through the Ardennes to cut off and surround the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium. When British and adjacent French forces were pushed back to the sea by the highly mobile and well organized German operation, the British government decided to evacuate the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) as well as several French divisions at Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo.

After the withdrawal of the BEF, Germany launched a second operation, Fall Rot (Case Red), which was commenced on 5 June. While the depleted French forces put up stiff initial resistance, German air superiority and armored mobility overwhelmed the remaining French forces. German armor outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France with German forces arriving in an undefended Paris on 14 June. This caused a chaotic period of flight for the French government and effectively ended organized French military resistance. German commanders finally met with French officials on June 18 with the goal of the new French government being an armistice with Germany. Chief among the new government leaders was Marshal Philippe Pétain recently made Premiere of France and one of the supporters of seeking an armistice with Germany.

On 22 June, an armistice was signed between France and Germany, which resulted in a division of France whereby Germany would occupy the north and west (and also keep nearly two million French soldiers as prisoners in German, Italy would control a small Italian occupation zone in the southeast, and an unoccupied zone, the zone libre, would be governed by the newly formed Vichy government led by Marshal Pétain. France remained under Axis occupation until the liberation of the country after the Allied landings in 1944.

Subject/Index Terms:
German invasion of France, 1940
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
France (1940--1945)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.03.01, German troops in France, 1940, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of the Nazi troops marching in through the gates in France.
Subject/Index Terms:
German invasion of France, 1940
German troops enter Paris, June 1940
France (Europe)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.03.02, German troops march into Paris, street view, June 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Nazi troops marching into Paris. The photograph depicts the scene from the street view.
Subject/Index Terms:
German invasion of France, 1940
German troops enter Paris, June 1940
Paris (France)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.03.03, German troops marching by the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, June 1940, German Federal Archives, June 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of German troops marching by the Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Subject/Index Terms:
German invasion of France, 1940
German troops enter Paris, June 1940
Paris (France)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.03.04, Jews rounded up for deportation, Paris, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A street scene of Parisian Jews being gathered for deportation in Paris.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
German invasion of France, 1940
Paris (France)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Sub-Collection 4: RG-23.04, Holocaust in Greece, 1920s -- 1945Add to your cart.

History of Jews in Greece in the interwar period and during the Holocaust.

Prior to World War II, there existed two main groups of Jews in Greece: the scattered Romaniote communities which had existed in Greece since antiquity; and the approximately 50,000-strong Sephardi Jewish community of Thessaloniki, originally formed from Jews fleeing the Spanish Inquisition and affected by the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. The latter had played a prominent part in the city's life for five centuries, but as the city had only become a part of the modern Greek state during the First Balkan War, it was not as well-integrated.

When the occupation zones were drawn up, Thessaloniki passed under German control. Thrace passed under Bulgarian control. Despite initial assurances to the contrary, the Nazis and Bulgarians gradually imposed a series of anti-Jewish measures. Jewish newspapers were closed down, local anti-Semites were encouraged to post anti-Jewish notices around the cities, Jews in the German and Bulgarian zones were forced to wear the Star of David so they could be easily identified and further isolated from the rest of the Greeks. Jewish families were kicked out of their homes and arrested while the Nazi-controlled press turned public opinion against them. By December 1942, the Germans began to demolish the old Jewish cemetery in Thessaloniki so the ancient tombstones could be used as building material for sidewalks and walls. The site of the old cemetery is today occupied by the campus of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Despite warnings of impending deportations, most Jews were reluctant to leave their homes, although several hundred were able to flee the city. The Germans and Bulgarians began mass deportations in March 1943, sending the Jews of Thessaloniki and Thrace in packed boxcars to the distant Auschwitz and Treblinka death camps. By the summer of 1943, the Jews of the German and Bulgarian zones were gone and only those in the Italian zone remained. Jewish property in Thessaloniki was distributed to Greek 'caretakers' who were chosen by special committee, the "Service for the Disposal of Jewish Property" (YDIP). Instead of giving apartments and businesses to the many refugees, however, they were most often given to friends and relatives of committee members or collaborators.

In September 1943, after the Italian collapse, the Germans turned their attention to the Jews of Athens and the rest of formerly Italian-occupied Greece. There their propaganda was not as effective, as the ancient Romaniote Jewish communities were well-integrated into the Orthodox Greek society and could not easily be singled out from the Christians, who in turn were more ready to resist the German authorities' demands. The Archbishop of Athens Damaskinos ordered his priests to ask their congregations to help the Jews and sent a strong-worded letter of protest to the collaborationist authorities and the Germans. Many Orthodox Christians risked their lives hiding Jews in their apartments and homes, despite threat of imprisonment. Even the Greek police ignored instructions to turn over Jews to the Germans. When Jewish community leaders appealed to Prime Minister Ioannis Rallis, he tried to alleviate their fears by saying that the Jews of Thessaloniki had been guilty of subversive activities and that this was the reason they were deported. At the same time, Elias Barzilai, the Grand Rabbi of Athens, was summoned to the Department of Jewish Affairs and told to submit a list of names and addresses of members of the Jewish community. Instead he destroyed the community records, thus saving the lives of thousands of Athenian Jews. He advised the Jews of Athens to flee or go into hiding. A few days later, the Rabbi himself was spirited out of the city by EAM-ELAS fighters and joined the resistance. EAM-ELAS helped hundreds of Jews escape and survive (especially officer Stefanos Sarafis), many of whom stayed with the resistance as fighters and/or interpreters.

In total, at least 81% (ca. 60,000) of Greece's total pre-war Jewish population perished, with the percentage ranging from Thessaloniki's 91% to 'just' 50% in Athens, or even less in other provincial areas such as Volos (36%). In the Bulgarian zone, death rates surpassed 90%. In the notable case of the Ionian island of Zakynthos, all 275 Jews survived, being hidden in the island's interior.

Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Greece
Anti-Jewish measures in Greece
Greece (Europe)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.04.01, German soldiers raising the flag over Akropolis, May 1941, German Federal Archives, May 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of German soldiers raising the Nazi flag over Akropolis, Greece.
Subject/Index Terms:
German Soldiers, Greece
German occupation of Greece
German Soldiers
Nazi flag
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.04.02, Jewish leaders with Metropolitan, Tessaloniki, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Jewish leaders posing with one another. The photograph was taken in Thessaloniki.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Greece
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.04.03, Jews of Greece being deported from Ioannina, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
In this photograph, the Jews in Greece are being deported from Ioannina. A woman is distraught over he situation.
Subject/Index Terms:
Anti-Jewish measures in Greece
Jews of Greece
Deportation scenes
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.04.04, Rabbi Meir with the King of Greece, Tessaloniki, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Rabbi Meir with the King of Greece walking and greeting the cameras.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Greece
King of Greece
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.04.05, Registration of the Jews of Tessaloniki, July 1942, German Federal Archives, July 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A crowd of Jews from Tessaloniki line up to register their status.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jews of Greece
Anti-Jewish measures in Greece
German occupation of Greece
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 5: RG-23.05, Holocaust in Denmark, 1940 -- 1945Add to your cart.

Denmark is the southernmost country in Scandinavia. Approximately 7,800 Jews lived in Denmark right before World War II. Of that number, about 6,000 were native Danes, and the rest were refugees, many of whom were children from the Youth Aliya and Zionist Youth Movements. Many other refugees had fled to Denmark in the years preceding the war. However, between 1934 and 1938 the rules regarding foreign refugees were tightened, so most of the 4500 Jews who had sought shelter in Denmark left the country.

The German army occupies Denmark on April 9, 1940. The Danes did not challenge German control, so the Germans agrees to let them continue running their government and army themselves. Included in the agreement was a clause that called for the protection of the Danish Jews, a point that the Danes stubbornly insisted upon. Thus, for the next few years, the status of the Jews did not change.

The way the Danes took care of and saved “their” Jews is considered one of the most heroic and humane aspects of World War II, and is still admired today. Legend has it that King Christian X himself donned a Jewish badge in solidarity with the Jews of Denmark. The story is fictional, but it powerfully depicts the Danish king as a model of courage and a symbol of commitment to his country’s Jews.

Subject/Index Terms:
German occupation of Denmark
Resistance in Denmark
Rescue and aid of Jews in Denmark
Rescue operation of Danish Jewry
Jews of Denmark safely transferred to Sweden
Role of Danish Government in Rescue of Jews in Denmark
Denmark (Europe)
Creators:
King Christian X (King of Denmark (1912--1947)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.05.01, A Danish fishing boat with Jewish refugees entering Swedish waters, October 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This picture depicts a group of Jewish refugees aboard a Danish fishing boat about to enter into Swedish waters where they will be protected.
Subject/Index Terms:
Rescue operation of Danish Jewry
Jews of Denmark safely transferred to Sweden
Rescue and aid of Jews in Denmark
Creators:
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.05.02, A letter from Danish King Christian X to Rabbi Melchior, December 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A letter from the Danish King Christian X to Rabbi Melchoir from 'Christian VIII Palace' in Amalienborg.The letter was sending him sympathy to the Rabbi in regards to a recent Nazi vandalism on the Synagogue in Copenhagen. .
Subject/Index Terms:
Role of Danish Government in Rescue of Jews in Denmark
Rescue and aid of Jews in Denmark
Christian X (King of Denmark)
Copenhagen (Denmark)
Synagogues, religious temples
Creators:
King Christian X (King of Denmark (1912--1947)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.05.03, Result of railroad attack on German freight transport, circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of a German freight transport that was attacked and derailed from resistance groups.
Subject/Index Terms:
Resistance in Denmark
German occupation of Denmark
Rescue and aid of Jews in Denmark
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.05.04, Danes resist Nazis, August 1943, a page of American edition, August 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The front page of an American edition of the New York Journal-American showing that the Danes are resisting the Nazis.

The New York Journal-American was a newspaper published from 1937 to 1966. The Journal-American was the product of a merger between two New York newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst: The New York American (originally the New York Journal, renamed American in 1901), a morning paper, and the New York Evening Journal, an afternoon paper. Both were published by Hearst from 1895 to 1937. The Journal-American was an afternoon publication. (Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
German occupation of Denmark
Resistance in Denmark
Creators:
The New York Journal-American (1937-1966)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.05.05, Printing of Danish underground newspaper, De Frie Danske, circa 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

A photograph of two men with hidden faces printing the Danish underground Newspaper, "De Frie Danske,"

translated as "The Free Danes."

The newspaper was circulated by Jewish Danes to inform citizens of the news surrounding the Holocaust.

Subject/Index Terms:
Resistance in Denmark
German occupation of Denmark
underground resistance in Denmark
Creators:
Underground resistance photographer (circa 1939--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.05.06, Fishing boat 'Astrid' memorial display in Haifa, Israel, in recognition of the rescue operation by the Danes in October 1943, October 1943Add to your cart.
Fishing boat 'Astrid' memorial display in Haifa, Israel, in recognition of the rescue operation by the Danes in October 1943
Subject/Index Terms:
Rescue and aid of Jews in Denmark
Rescue operation of Danish Jewry
Role of Danish Government in Rescue of Jews in Denmark
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.05.07, A street in chaos, General Strike in Copenhagen initiated by Danish Resistance, July 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Men and bodies lay on the street when a general strike was initiated in Copenhagen by the Danish Resistance.
Subject/Index Terms:
Resistance in Denmark
German occupation of Denmark
Creators:
Underground resistance photographer (circa 1939--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.05.08, German soldiers saluting to King Christian X of Denmark, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of two German soldiers saluting King Christian X.
Subject/Index Terms:
Christian X (King of Denmark)
Denmark during the war
Copenhagen (Denmark)
Geopolitical situation in Denmark during WWII
Denmark (Europe)
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.05.09, German troops occupying Aaberraa, South Judtland, Denmark, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German troops on trucks are passing through a street in Aaberra, South Judtland in Denmark. The civilians wave to them as they pass by.
Subject/Index Terms:
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
German occupation of Denmark
Denmark (Europe)
South Jutland (Denmark)
Denmark during the war
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.05.10, A Jewish deportee ID to Theresienstadt, circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Jewish deportee's ID for transfer to Theresienstadt.
Subject/Index Terms:
Copenhagen (Denmark)
Denmark (Europe)
Identification documents, German issued, 1933 -- 1945
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Deportation to concentration camps
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation of Danish Jews
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-23.05.11, Members of the Danish Resistance disarming Danish military personnel on the streets of Copenhagen, 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A collage of scenes of a member of the Danish Resistace harrasing and disarming a Danish military personnel on the streets of Copenhagen.
Subject/Index Terms:
Geopolitical situation in Denmark during WWII
Denmark (Europe)
Resistance in Denmark
Denmark during the war
Creators:
Underground resistance photographer (circa 1939--1944)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 6: RG-23.06, Nazi Takeover of Czechoslovakia, 1939 -- 1945Add to your cart.

German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's pretext for this effort was the alleged privations suffered by the ethnic German population living in those regions. New and extensive Czechoslovak border fortifications were also located in the same area.

Following the Anschluss of Nazi Germany and Austria, in March 1938, the conquest of Czechoslovakia became Hitler's next ambition. The incorporation of the Sudetenland into Nazi Germany left the rest of Czechoslovakia weak and it became powerless to resist subsequent occupation. On 16 March 1939, the German Wehrmacht moved into the remainder of Czechoslovakia and, from Prague Castle, Hitler proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The occupation ended with the surrender of Germany following World War II.

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Second Czechoslovak Republic, government
Hacha, Emil, the third president of Czechoslovakia
Benes, Eduard, minister of the foreign affairs and second president of Czechoslovakia
Masaryk, Tomas, Czech politician, sociologist, philosopher, first president of Czechoslovakia
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, annexed to Germany
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Wikimedia Commons
Czechoslovakian government (1938--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.06.01, An honor guard forms in the Prague Castle awaiting Hitler visit, March 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An honor guard forms in the Prague castle waiting for Hitler to arrive.
Subject/Index Terms:
Second Czechoslovak Republic, government
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Prague (Czech Republic)
Prague Castle
Creators:
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.06.02, Czechs watch German troops entering Prague, March 15, 1939, copyrighted, March 15, 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Czechoslovakian citizens watch and greet the troops entering Prague.
Subject/Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Czechoslovakia, 1945 -- 1948
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Prague (Czech Republic)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.06.03, Eduard Benes, second president of Czecho-Slovakia, photograph, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

A photograph of Eduard Benes.

Edvard Beneš (17 May 1884 – 3 September 1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, Minister of Foreign Affairs and the second President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1940 to 1948. He was known to be a skilled diplomat.

Subject/Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Czechoslovakia, 1945 -- 1948
Benes, Edvard
Benes, Eduard, minister of the foreign affairs and second president of Czechoslovakia
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
Creators:
Czechoslovakian government (1938--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.06.04, German troops enter Prague, March 15, 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German troops march into Prague on March 15, 1939.
Subject/Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia, 1945 -- 1948
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Prague (Czech Republic)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.06.05, Hitler reviews the honor guard inside the Prague Castle, March 1939, US National Archive, March 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Adolf Hitler arrives at the Prague Castle and reviews the honor guard outside on March 1939.
Subject/Index Terms:
Hitler
Adolf Hitler, dictator and German Chancellor and President
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Prague (Czech Republic)
Prague Castle
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.06.06, Munich Conference on Sudetenland, a coffee break, September 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The members of the Munich Conference committee take a coffee break. Pictured in this photo is Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier.
Subject/Index Terms:
Hitler
Adolf Hitler, dictator and German Chancellor and President
Munich (Germany)
Munich Conference, September 1938
German annexation of Sudetenland (October 1, 1938)
Appeasement of Hitler
Chamberlain, Neville (British Prime Minister)
Daladier, Edouard (French President)
Mussolini, Benito (Italian "Il Duce")
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.06.07, Official announcement in German and Czech, Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, November 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An official announcement of the German protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The announcement is written in both German and Czechoslovakian.
Subject/Index Terms:
Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, annexed to Germany
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Official announcement of German Protectorate
Creators:
German Military Publications (1939-1940)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.06.08, Partition of Czechoslovakia, after March 1939, Wikipedia Commons, August 2010Add to your cart.
A map fo the partition of Czechoslovakian land in 1939.
Subject/Index Terms:
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
German conquest of Czechoslovakia 1938
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Appeasement of Hitler
Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, annexed to Germany
Map of Protectorate of Bohemia and Monravia
Creators:
Wikimedia Commons
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.06.09, Emil Hacha, third president of Czechoslavakia, meeting with Hitler, Goring, and other officials, Berlin, March 14, 1939Add to your cart.
Subject/Index Terms:
Hacha, Emil, the third president of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Geopolitical situation in Denmark during WWII
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.06.10, Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, Placard, August 1939, Bundesarchiv, Record Plak 003-030-026, copyrighted, August 1939Add to your cart.
A placard announcing the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Subject/Index Terms:
Official announcement of German Protectorate
Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, annexed to Germany
German Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
Creators:
German Military Publications (1939-1940)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-23.06.11, Tomas Masaryk, returning from exile, December 1948Add to your cart.

With the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, the Allies recognized Masaryk as head of the Provisional Czechoslovak government, and on November 14, 1918, he was elected President of the Czechoslovak republic by the National Assembly in Prague.

Masaryk was re-elected as president three times: in 1920, 1927, and 1934. After the rise of Hitler, he was one of the first political figures in Europe to voice concern. He resigned from office on December 14, 1935 on the grounds of old age and poor health, and Edvard Beneš succeeded him.

On paper, Masaryk's powers as president were limited; the framers of the 1920 constitution intended for the Prime Minister and Cabinet to hold the real power. He did, however, provide a considerable measure of stability in the face of frequent changes of government (there were 10 cabinets headed by nine Prime Ministers during his tenure). Due to this stability as well as his great prestige inside and outside the country, Masaryk enjoyed almost legendary authority among the Czechoslovak people. He used this authority to create an extensive informal political network called Hrad (the Castle). Under his watch, Czechoslovakia became the strongest democracy in central Europe.

Masaryk died less than two years after leaving office, at the age of 87, in Lány, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic. Dying when he did, he was spared witnessing the Munich Agreement and the Nazi occupation of his country.

Subject/Index Terms:
Masaryk, Tomas, Czech politician, sociologist, philosopher, first president of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia (Europe)
Creators:
Czechoslovakian government (1938--1945)
Sub-Collection 7: RG-23.07, Dachau concentration camp, 1945Add to your cart.

First Nazi concentration camp. The camp was located in the small German town of Dachau, about 10 miles northwest of Munich. It was established in March 1933 and liberated in April 1945. Altogether, more than 200,000 prisoners passed through the camp, and over 30,000 officially died there, although the true figure is certainly much higher.

The original purpose of the camp was to silence any opponents of the Nazis; it was also meant to scare the people of Germany into obeying and supporting the Nazi regime. The commandant of Dachau, Theodor Eicke, ran the camp according to a strict system of rules and regulations. He was aided by a staff that consisted of members of the SS’s Death Head units, known for their brutality. When he was later made inspector general for all concentration camps, Eicke used those same regulations to run other camp. In that way, Dachau was an effective training ground for the Nazis’ cruel agenda.

Dachau was opened in March 1933, soon after Hitler rose to national power in Germany. The first prisoners interned at the camp were known political enemies of the Nazi regime, mostly Communists and Social Democrats. According to the Nazis, they had been taken into “protective-custody.” These political prisoners, who had arrived first and knew the camp best, held most of the important positions in the prisoners’ internal government, set up by the SS.

During the last few months before Dachau was liberated, the prisoners lived under even worse conditions than before. Thousands or prisoners were brought from other camps that been evacuated with the knowledge that the Allies were quickly advancing. Barracks meant to house 200 prisoners were jammed with more than 1600. A typhus epidemic swept Dachau, killing 100-200 prisoners daily.

Dachau was liberated on April 29, 1945 by the Seventh Army of the United States Armed Forces.

Subject/Index Terms:
Dachau (Concentration camp)
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945)
Germany (1939--1945)
Creators:
Allied Authorities, US Military Government in Germany, Gestapo and Dachau commandant offices (1945 -- 1946)
Military Government of the US occupation zone in Germany (1944 -- 1952)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.07.01- Dachau concentration camp after liberation, American soldier posing in front of the pile of corpses, 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An American soldier stands posing to a pile of dead bodies after the liberation of the camp. The bodies are thin and lifeless.
Subject/Index Terms:
Dachau (Concentration camp)
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945)
Creators:
Allied Authorities, US Military Government in Germany, Gestapo and Dachau commandant offices (1945 -- 1946)
Allied Military Personnel
Sub-Collection 8: RG-23.08, Gross-Rosen concentration camp, deportation lists, 1945Add to your cart.
A list of deportees that were being sent out from Gross-Rosen concentration camp.
Subject/Index Terms:
Transport lists
Gross-Rosen (Concentration camp)
Gross Rosen, German concentration camp
Bruenlitz (Concentration camp)
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.08.01, Transport list from Gross-Rosen to Bruenlitz concentration camp - male and female, April 18, 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bruenlitz (Concentration camp)
Gross-Rosen (Concentration camp)
Transport lists
Transports
Deportation to concentration camps
German, language
Germany (1945 -- 1949)
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.08.01.01, Transport list from Gross-Rosen to Bruenlitz - male and female_Page_01, 18 April 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Front page of a transport list from Gross-Rosen to Bruenlitz concentration camp, listing both male and females.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bruenlitz (Concentration camp)
Deportation to concentration camps
German, language
Germany (1945 -- 1949)
Gross-Rosen (Concentration camp)
Transport lists
Transports
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Sub-Collection 9: RG-23.09, Bialystok ghetto, 1941--1944Add to your cart.

The Germans invaded Bialystok on September 15, 1939. A week later, they transferred the city to the Soviets, as promised in the Nazi-Soviet Pact. However, when the Germans attacked the Soviets in June 1941, they retook control of Bialystok. June 27 was named “Red Friday” because on that day Nazi Einsatzgruppen murdered 2,000 Jews there. Over the next two weeks, another 4,000 Jews were killed in an open field near Pietraszek.

On June 29 the Nazis ordered the Jews to establish a Judenrat. The ghetto was divided into two parts, on the east and west sides of the Biala River.

From February 5-12, 1943 the Germans carried out a massacre in the ghetto. Two thousand Jews were shot and 10,000 were deported to Treblinka.

Subject/Index Terms:
Białystok ghetto
Liquidation of concentration camps
Creators:
Nazi Party
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.09.01, Bialystok ghetto at the liquidation, circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A picture of several prisoners awaiting orders for liquidation.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bialystok ghetto
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied and controlled Europe
Bialystok (Poland: Ghetto)
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs
wartime photographs
Liquidation of ghettos
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Nazi Party
Sub-Collection 10: RG-23.10, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, 1936--1945Add to your cart.

Sachsenhausen was a concentration camp located in Oranienburg, 20 miles north of Berlin. Over the almost nine years of existence, all sorts of inmates were imprisoned there, including political prisoners, common criminals, gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses who refused to support the German war effort, homosexuals, and Jews. The different groups of prisoners were made to wear different colors badges for easy identification of their status. Jews living in separate barracks from the rest of the inmates, and were treated worse than the rest, as well. Prominent prisoners such as the anti-Nazi German Protestant pastor Martin Neimoller were also housed separately.

It is estimated that some 200,000 prisoners passed through Sachsenhausen and that 30,000 perished there. That number does not include the Soviet prisoners of war who were exterminated immediately upon arrival at the camp, as they were never even registered on the camp’s lists. The number also does not account for those prisoners who died on the way to the camp, while being transferred elsewhere, or during the camp’s evacuation.

In February 1945 Red Cross representatives arrived at Sachsenhausen and offered to take control of the camp. However, the Nazis refused, and instead sent most of the camp’s prisoners on a death march through Germany. Many died along the way. Sachsenhausen was liberated by Soviet troops on April 27, 1945. They found only 3,000 prisoners who had been too ill to leave on the death march.

Subject/Index Terms:
Roll Call
Sachsenhausen (Concentration camp)
Prisoners in the camps
Prisoner's roll call
Creators:
Nazi Party
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.10.01- Photograph, Sachsenhausen, roll call, circa 1936Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of prisoners lining up for roll call.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs
Prisoner's roll call
Roll Call
Sachsenhausen (Concentration camp)
Political prisoners of Nazi German prisons
Prewar photographs
Germany (1933 -- 1939)
Oranienburg-Sachsenhausen, German Concentration Camp
Oranienburg (Germany)
Creators:
Nazi Party
German Military Authority
Sub-Collection 11: RG-23.11, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the wake of liberation, circa 1943--1945Add to your cart.

Bergen-Belsen concentration camp was located in northern Germany. It was established in April 1943 as a detention camp for prisoners who were to be exchanged with Germans imprisoned in Allied countries.

Bergen-Belsen was liberated  by the British army on April 15, 1945. The soldiers were totally shocked at what they found, including 60,000 prisoners in the camp, many on the brink of death, and thousands of unburied bodies lying about. After liberation, the camp became a Displaced Person's camp until 1951.

Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Creators:
Nazi Party
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.11.01, Bergen-Belsen, prisoners by barracks are lined up, circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Prisoners are lined up near the barracks for a prisoner's roll call.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Roll Call
Prisoner's roll call
concentration camp photographs
Photographs
Bergen (Germany)
wartime photographs
Jewish prisoners of Nazi German prisons
Germany (1939--1945)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.11.02, Bergen Belsen, a view of the campsite, ca 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Inmates sit around soon after the camp has been liberated.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Living conditions in concentration camps
living and working conditions in concentration and labor camps
Liberation of concentration camps
Aftermath of liberation
concentration camp photographs
Germany (1939--1945)
Bergen (Germany)
Liberation of Nazi-German concentration camps, Germany
Creators:
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.11.03, Bergen Belsen, open mass grave, circa 1943--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of dead bodies in a massive grave.
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Open grave of prisoners
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
mass graves
Bergen (Germany)
Photographs
concentration camp photographs
Nazi atrocities
Germany (1939--1945)
Creators:
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Allied Military Personnel
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.11.04, Bergen-Belsen after liberation, view of the barracks and former inmates, circa 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph shortly after the liberation and a view of the barracks and the former inmates walking about.
Subject/Index Terms:
Post-Liberation
Liberation of Nazi-German concentration camps, Germany
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Bergen (Germany)
Germany (1945 -- 1949)
Aftermath of liberation
Liberation from German concentration camps
Prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps, postliberation conditions
Photographs
concentration camp photographs
Creators:
Allied Military Personnel
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.11.05, Bergen-Belsen after camp liberation, a bulldozer pushing corpses into a mass grave, April 14, 1945Add to your cart.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Open grave of prisoners
Consulate General of Israel
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.11.06, Bergen-Belsen in the aftermath of liberation 1, circa 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
This photograph is taken soon after the liberation of the camp. Many former prisoners sit on the floor in their prison uniforms. A woman is washing her hands with some water.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Liberation from German concentration camps
Liberation of concentration camps
Post-Liberation
Liberation of Nazi-German concentration camps, Germany
Aftermath of liberation
Living conditions in concentration camps
Prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps, postliberation conditions
Photographs
Bergen (Germany)
Germany (1945 -- 1949)
Creators:
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Allied Military Personnel
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.11.07, Bergen-Belsen, a female victim of German atrocities 3, circa 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A woman tries to force a smile for the cameras while her face is badly damaged and bandaged.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Nazi atrocities
Aftermath of liberation
Liberation from German concentration camps
Post-Liberation
Bergen (Germany)
Germany (1945 -- 1949)
Photographs
concentration camp photographs
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.11.08, Bergen-Belsen, an emaciated female inmate after liberation, circa 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A thin and frail woman sits for the cameras after the liberation. Her cheeks are prominent in the picture.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Nazi atrocities
Bergen (Germany)
Liberation from German concentration camps
Aftermath of liberation
Photographs
Prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps, postliberation conditions
Photographs, concentration camps
Germany (1945 -- 1949)
Creators:
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Allied Military Personnel
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.11.09, Female camp guards of Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp captured after liberation, April 18, 1945Add to your cart.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Female camp guards
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.11.10, Female SS guards compelled by British liberators to bury camp inmates in the mass grave, Spring 1945Add to your cart.
Subject/Index Terms:
Female camp guards
Open grave of prisoners
Sub-Collection 12: RG-23.12, The Netherlands, German invasion, circa 1940--1945Add to your cart.
The Netherlands, also known as Holland, is a country in Western Europe. The Germans invaded on May 10, 1940 and four days later the Dutch army surrenderede. Many Jews tried to escape the country during this time. Anti-Jewish legislation and measures began in 1940 and deportations followed in the summer of 1942. The Netherlands were liberated on May 6, 1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
The Netherlands (Europe)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.12.01, The Netherlands, deportation, a street scene, circa 1940--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A woman waits next to her luggage in a Dutch city for deportation transport, Holland.
Subject/Index Terms:
German-occupied Holland
The Netherlands (Europe)
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
The Netherlands (1940--1945)
Nazi-German atrocities
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.12.02, Deportation from Westerbork transit camp, the Netherlands, USHMM, copyrighted, circa 1940--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A transit train is being loaded with passengers who are being deported to Westerbork transit camp.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
The Netherlands (Europe)
The Netherlands (1940--1945)
Westerbork (Netherlands: Transit Camp)
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Jewish Prisoner (Collaboration in transit camps)
Jewish auxiliary service in Westerbork transit camp
Deportation from Westerbork transit camp, 1940-1945
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.12.03, The destroyed city of Rotterdam after the bombing in May 1940, German Federal Archives, circa June 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Rotterdam soon after the bombing in May 1940.
Subject/Index Terms:
The Netherlands (Europe)
German invasion of the Netherlands, May 1940
Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Bombardments, World War II
The Netherlands (1940--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.12.04, The Netherlands, camp auxiliary faculity, with a warning sign, Second World War, 1940-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A camp auxiliary faculity with a warning sign that reads "Poison Gas," the Netherlands.
Subject/Index Terms:
Concentration camps, German
The Netherlands (1940--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 13: RG-23.13, Atrocities, mass killings in German-occupied Europe, Second World War., circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
This collection contains photographs of atrocities and mass killings that took place throughout German-occupied Europe.
Subject/Index Terms:
Serbia (Europe)
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Execution of Jews
Public humiliations
Zyklon B
Prisoners digging their own grave
Open grave of prisoners
Prisoner's band
Creators:
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.13.01, Serbs digging their own grave, before the mass killing, German invasion of Yugoslavia, Second World War, 1941-1945, 1941-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Three Serbian men are digging their own grave, before the mass killing begins.
Subject/Index Terms:
Prisoners digging their own grave
Serbia (Europe)
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
German invasion of Yugoslavia, April 1941
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Military Photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.13.02, Bodies in the Sava River, Serbia, Yugoslavia, Second World War, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Bodies float along the Save River in Serbia.
Subject/Index Terms:
The Sava River, Yugoslavia
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Serbia (Europe)
Wartime atrocities and mass killing, Second World War
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.13.03, German soldiers near a mass killing site, Europe, Second World War, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German soldiers, and one member of the local Auxiliary Police Force  (far right), stand around a pile of bodies near a mass killing site, Europe, Second World War.
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Europe (1939-1945)
Wartime atrocities and mass killing, Second World War
German Soldiers
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Auxiliary police forces, non-German, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Military Photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.13.04, A prisoner is taken to execution, accompanied by a playing band of camp prisoners, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The notation at the bottom of this photograph reads, " The treachery and cruelty of the SS-men were without limit. Prisoners were forced to play while they accompanied their comrades to the execution site."
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi concentration camps in Poland
Prisoner's band
Nazi atrocities
Execution in concentration camps
Photographs, concentration camps
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.13.05, Ten photographs of Nazi-perpetrated atrocities, Second World War, Europe, 1939-1945, circa 1939-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
There are ten photographs within this document that depict the atrocities, such as mass killings and individual killing/humiliation, committed by Nazi-German soldiers, both within and outside of concentration camps.
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi atrocities
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Public humilations
Nazi-perpetuated mass shootings
Wartime atrocities and mass killing, Second World War
Photographs, concentration camps
Photographs, Second World War
Ukraine (1941-1945)
The USSR (1941--1945)
Poland (1939 --1945)
Holocaust in Poland
Holocaust in USSR (1941-1944)
Einsatzgruppen (Nazi police intelligence units "action-groups")
Mass killing of Jewish population, Second World War
Bergen-Belsen (Germany: Concentration Camp)
Ivangorod (Ukraine)
German Soldiers
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Military Photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.13.06, Five photographs Nazi-perpetrated humiliation, labor,  and executions, Europe, Second World War, 1939-1945, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Collection of five photographs depicting the humiliation (particularly thrugh hair/beard cutting), the execution of a Jew who planned a coup, and the forced labor of Jews.
Subject/Index Terms:
Public humilations
Nazi-perpetrated hair and/or beard cutting
Europe (1939 -- 1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Individual's execution
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
Kaunas (Lithuania)
Jewish pogrom in Kovno (Kaunas), 1941
Kovno (Lithuania)
Einsatzgruppen (Nazi police intelligence units "action-groups")
Holocaust in Poland
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Military Photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.13.07, A German firing squad on a street in Drohobych taking aim at unseen vicitims, public domain, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A German firing squad on a street in Drohobych in Ukraine taking aim at unseen vicitims, public domain.
Subject/Index Terms:
German firing squad
Drohobych, Ukraine
Executions, firing squad
Drohobych (Ukraine: Ghetto)
Nazi-perpetuated mass shootings
Wartime atrocities and mass killing, Second World War
Photographs, Second World War
Ukraine, 1939-1945
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.13.08, German civilians carry the bodies of concentration camp prisoners to the grave which they were forced to dig, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
German civilians carry the bodies of concentration camp prisoners to the grave which they were forced to dig.
Subject/Index Terms:
German civilians digging mass graves for concentration camp victims
Open grave of prisoners
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.13.09, German soldiers watching the mass murder scene on a town square, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German soldiers surrond a large group men who are lying on the ground with their hands behind their backs, either about to be murdered or already murdered. This scene takes place in a town square.
Subject/Index Terms:
Mass executions
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Photographs, Second World War
Nazi atrocities
Photographs depicting Nazi crimes in Euroupe
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
German Soldiers
Wartime atrocities and mass killing, Second World War
Creators:
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.13.10, A Wehrmacht  soldier prepares to shoot a mother and child, Ukraine, 1941, 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
In this photo a woman carries her child into a field, while a Wehrmacht soldier aims a gun to her head.
Subject/Index Terms:
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Ukraine (Europe)
Ukraine (1941-1945)
German Soldiers
Execution, individual
Nazi atrocities
Photographs, Second World War
Children victims
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Military Photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-23.13.11, Jews are rounded up in Sompolno, Poland, 1941., ca 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish men are rounded-up, likely  for deportation, in the small Polish town of Sompolno. Every man wears an identification tag around his neck. J
Subject/Index Terms:
Sompolno (Poland)
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Roundups and Actions in the ghettos
Photographs, Second World War
Poland (1939 --1945)
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-23.13.12, A former female prisoner of German concentration camp after liberation, circa 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A newly-liberated female prisoner from a Nazi-German concentration camp after liberation. She is lying on her side with her ribs clearly visible. She malnourished and starving.
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi atrocities
Prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps, postliberation conditions
Female concentration camp inmates
Aftermath of liberation
Starvation, concentration camps
Photographs, Second World War
concentration camp photographs
Photographs, postwar, 1945 -- 1988
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-23.13.13, Zyklon B, weapon of mass destruction in the Nazi death camps, manufactured by I.G. Farben Industrie, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
Zyklon B was a weapon of mass destruction used within the gas chambers to induce mass killings of prisoners. The Zyklon B used in these killings were manufactured by I.G. Farben Industrie.
Subject/Index Terms:
Zyklon B
Nazi gas chambers
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-23.13.14, Photoshop version of Photo 7 in RG 23.13.05, Polish policemen cut beards and curls of two Jewish men, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
This is a photoshopped version of the photo depicted in RG 23.13.05. Polish policemen cut the beards and curls of two Jewish men, which were kept for religious purposes.
Subject/Index Terms:
Public humiliations
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Sub-Collection 14: RG-23.14, Holocaust of the Hungarian Jewry, circa 1940--1945Add to your cart.

The Fascist elements in Hungary enjoyed broad popular support and Miklos Horthy’s dictatorial government concluded an alliance with Nazi Germany. Antisemitic legislation was passed and more than 100,000 Jewish men were mobilized for forced labor, in which approximately 40,000 perished.

When Hungary joined the war against the Allies, nearly 20,000 Jews from Kamenetz-Podolsk who held Polish or Soviet citizenship were turned over to the Germans and murdered. However, the extermination phase in Hungary only began later, after the Nazi invasion in March 1944. Until then Horthy refused to succumb to Hitler’s pressure to hand over the Jews. At this time there were more than 800,000 Jews living in Hungary, as a result of annexations of regions from Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia. In May 1944 the deportations to Auschwitz began. In just eight weeks, some 437,000 Jews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. After October 1944, when the Arrow Cross party came to power, thousands of Jews from Budapest were murdered on the banks of the Danube and tens of thousands were marched hundreds of miles towards the Austrian border. In all, some 565,000 Hungarian Jews were murdered.

Subject/Index Terms:
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945)
Nazi atrocities
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Hungarian police officials (circa 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.14.01, Mass murder scene from a Hungarian Jewish Transport, 1943-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph of a mass murder scence from Hungarian-Jewish transport.
Subject/Index Terms:
Mass killing of Jewish population, Second World War
Antisemitism in Hungary
Hungary (Europe)
Transports
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Deportation of Hungarian Jews
Hungary (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Mass executions
mass graves
Nazi atrocities
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945)
Creators:
Hungarian police officials (circa 1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.14.02, Mass murder scene from a Hungarian Jewish Transport, at the background a concentration camp compound is seen, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Mass murder scene from a Hungarian Jewish Transport, at the background a concentration camp compound is seen. There are no graves for the bodies.
Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Hungary (Europe)
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Execution in concentration camps
Hungarian Jews
Hungary (1939--1945)
Mass executions
Photographs, Second World War
concentration camp photographs
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945)
Holocaust, Hungarian
Deportation of Hungarian Jews
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Hungarian police officials (circa 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.14.03, Hungarian police arrest Jewish resistance fighter, Robert Mandel in Budapest, USHMM, public domain, ca 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Hungarian police arrest Jewish resistance fighter, Robert Mandel in Budapest, USHMM, public domain.
Subject/Index Terms:
Hungarian police
Mandel, Robert (Jewish resistance fighter)
Jewish resistance
Hungary (1939--1945)
Hungary (Europe)
Budapest (Hungary)
Arrests and captures
German invasion of Hungary (March 19, 1944)
Creators:
Hungarian police officials (circa 1939--1945)
Sub-Collection 16: RG-23.16, Minsk ghetto, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.

Capital of Belorussia. On the eve of German Invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, one-third of the city's population consisted of Jews. The Germans quickly launched the organized persecution of the city's Jews. A Ghetto was established in Minsk in July 1941, and consisted of about 100,000 Jews.

Minsk was liberated on July 3, 1944, but only a handful of Jews who hid during the Nazi 'aktion,' remained alive.

Subject/Index Terms:
Minsk ghetto (Belorussia)
Soviet Union
The USSR (1941--1945)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.16.01, Minsk ghetto, inside view, circa 1941- 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of the inside view of the Minsk ghetto, with a warning sign psoted on the fence in German and Russian.
Subject/Index Terms:
Minsk ghetto (Belorussia)
Soviet Union
Minsk (Capital of Belarus)
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Second World War
Photographs, Minsk Ghetto (1941-1943)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Military Photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.16.02, Minsk, Masha Bruskina with comrades-partisans before execution, October 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The photograph depicts Masha Bruskina with comrades-partisans before her execution in October 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Minsk ghetto (Belorussia)
Bruskina, Masha, Soviet Partisan
Soviet partisans
Soviet partisan movement in the USSR
Resistance, Soviet
Photographs, Second World War
Belorussia, USSR
Belorussia (1939-1945)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 17: RG-23.17, Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property, circa 1941Add to your cart.
Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property.
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.17.01, Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph depeicts sign "Jud" on Jewish storefront in a German town, ca 1933.
Subject/Index Terms:
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Boycott of Jewish businesses in Nazi Germany
Antisemitism
Germany (1918--1933)
Germany (1933 -- 1939)
Creators:
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.17.02, A broken window at the Jewish business, Germany, ca 1933, ca 1933Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph depicts violation of Jewish property in Germany, ca 1933.
Subject/Index Terms:
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Boycott of Jewish businesses in Nazi Germany
Antisemitism
Germany (1918--1933)
Germany (1933 -- 1939)
Creators:
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
City mob, Germany (ca 1933)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.17.03, Jews of Vienna scrubbing the sidewalks, ca 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph depicts a group of Jewish men scrubbing the street, surronded by Nazi officials and Austrian citizens, Vienna, Austria, ca 1938.
Subject/Index Terms:
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Antisemitism
Public humilations
Photographs, pre-Second World War
Austria (1933-1939)
Anti-Semitism in Austria
Vienna (Austria)
Austria (1939--1945)
Creators:
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
City mob, Austria
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.17.04, Nazi rally Berlin, 1935, 1935Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph from a Nazi rally in Berlin, 1935. A banner reads "Die Juden sing unser ungluck" (The Jews are our misfortune).
Subject/Index Terms:
Berlin (Germany)
Nazi Rally
The Jews are our misfortune, Nazi antisemitic slogan
Germany (1933 -- 1939)
Photographs, pre-Second World War
Antisemitism
Antisemitism in Germany
Creators:
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 18: RG-23.18, Jewish Police in the ghettos, circa 1942Add to your cart.

Jewish Ghetto Police (German: Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst), also known as the Jewish Police Service and referred to by the Jews as the Jewish Police, were the auxiliary police units organized in the Jewish ghettos of Europe by local Judenrat councils under orders of occupying German Nazis.

Members of the Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst did not have official uniforms, often wearing just an identifying armband and a badge, and were not allowed to carry firearms. They were used by the Germans primarily for securing the deportation of other Jews to the concentration camps.

The Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst were Jews who usually had little prior association with the communities they oversaw (especially after the roundups and deportations to extermination camps began), and who could be relied upon to follow German orders. The first commander of the Warsaw ghetto was Józef Szeryński, a Polish-Jewish police colonel. He changed his name from Szenkman and developed an anti-Semitic attitude. Szerynski survived an assassination attempt carried out by a member of the Jewish police, Yisrael Kanal, who was working on behalf of the underground Jewish Combat Organization. In ghettos where the Judenrat was resistant to German orders, the Jewish police were often used (as reportedly in Lutsk) to control or replace the council.

One of the largest police units was to be found in the Warsaw Ghetto, where the Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst numbered about 2500. The Łódź Ghetto had about 1200, and the Lviv Ghetto 500.[3]

The Polish-Jewish historian and the Warsaw Ghetto archivist Emanuel Ringelblum has described the cruelty of the ghetto police as "at times greater than that of the Germans, the Ukrainians and the Latvians."

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Parasol, Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Warsaw ghetto
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Spiro-Szapira, Simcha, Head of Cracow Jewish order police
Lodz (Poland: Ghetto)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.18.01, Warsaw ghetto, Jewish policeman regulates traffic, 1940--1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Jewish policemen regulates street traffic in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Poland (1939 --1945)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.18.02, Jewish policemen convoy a group of Jews, circa 1942Add to your cart.
Jewish policement convoy a group of Jews.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.18.03, A Jewish order policeman with his wife and son, Lodz ghetto, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Jewish policeman poses next to his wife and son in the Lodz ghetto, Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs, Lodz ghetto, 1940 -- 1944
Lodz ghetto, 1940 -- 1944
Photographs, family members
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Jewish Order Police
Photographs, ghettos
Lodz (Poland: Ghetto)
Poland (1939 --1945)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.18.04, Cracow ghetto, a roll call of the Jewish police, Police chief S. Szapiro (Spiro) straightening a policeman hat, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Police Chief S. Spiro inspects Jewish policemen in a roll call. In this photogrpah, he is straightening the hat of a policeman. Cracow ghetto, Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Cultural life in ghettos
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Spiro-Szapira, Simcha, Head of Cracow Jewish order police
Roll call, Jewish Order Police
Poland (1939--1945)
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
collaboration in the Holocaust
Judenraete--Poland (1939-1945)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.18.05, Cracow ghetto, Jewish policemen, second from the right, Simcha Spiro, head of the Jewish police, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Cracow ghetto, Jewish policemen, second from the right, Simcha Spiro, head of the Jewish police. Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Spiro-Szapira, Simcha, Head of Cracow Jewish order police
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
collaboration in the Holocaust
Collaboration in ghettos
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Poland (1939 --1945)
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.18.06, Jewish order police arresting two Jewish youths for smuggling in the Warsaw ghetto, ca 1942, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Warsaw Ghetto Jewish Order Police walk behind two teenage boys who are arrested for smuggling.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Jewish youth in the ghetto
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Arrests and captures
Smuggling, ghettos
Poland (1939--1945)
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
collaboration in the Holocaust
Collaboration in ghettos
Creators:
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.18.07, Jewish order police in Lodz ghetto, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of the Jewish order police within the Lodz ghetto.
Subject/Index Terms:
Collaboration in ghettos
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Lodz (Poland: Ghetto)
Lodz (Poland)
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
collaboration in the Holocaust
Poland (1939--1945)
Creators:
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.18.08, Jewish order police on snow removal duty in Lodz, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish order police prepare to remove snow in the Lodz Ghetto, Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Lodz (Poland: Ghetto)
Lodz (Poland)
Lodz ghetto, 1940 -- 1944
Photographs, Lodz ghetto, 1940 -- 1944
Poland (1939--1945)
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Collaboration in ghettos
Creators:
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.18.09, Jewish order police, Bundesarchiv, May 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish order police line up and await orders, May 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Roll call, Jewish Order Police
Collaboration in ghettos
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Photographs, ghettos
collaboration in the Holocaust
Creators:
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.18.10, Jewish service to maintain order, Ordungsdienst, ca 1940, ca 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A police officer reads off an order to Jewish citizens.
Subject/Index Terms:
collaboration in the Holocaust
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Jewish collaborators
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-23.18.11, Romek Kaliski, member of the Jewish order police in the Lodz ghetto, ca 1942, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Romek Kaliski, member of the Jewish order police in the Lodz ghetto, Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Lodz (Poland)
Lodz (Poland: Ghetto)
Lodz ghetto, 1940 -- 1944
Kaliski, Romek, Member of the Jewish order police in Lodz ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Collaboration in ghettos
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Jewish collaborators
Creators:
Judischer Ordnungsdienst, Jewish order police (circa 1942)
Sub-Collection 19: RG-23.19, Norway, June 2008Add to your cart.
In the middle of the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, there were at least 2,173 Jews in Norway. At least 775 of these were arrested, detained, and/or deported. 742 were murdered in the camps, 23 died as a result of extrajudicial execution, murder, and suicide during the war; bringing the total of Jewish Norwegian dead to at least 765, comprising 230 complete households.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-1"></sup> In addition to those who survived the camps, the rest survived by fleeing the country, mostly to Sweden, but some also to the United Kingdom. A few also survived in camps in Norway or in hospitals, or in hiding. In conclusion, all Jews in Norway, be they men, women or children were either deported and murdered, imprisoned, had fled to Sweden, or were in hiding in Norway by 27 November 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation of children from Stabekk, Norway to Auschwitz
Stabekk, Norway
Auschwitz (Concentration camp)--Complex of concentration and extermination camps
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945), commemoration
Post-Holocaust Commemoration
Auschwitz Complex of concentration camps (Poland)
Creators:
Municipality of Stabekk, Norway (2008)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.19.01, Memorial plaque at Stabekk elementary school , 1942, Norway, conditional public domain, June 2008Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Memorial plaque at Stabekk elementary school of three children who were taken out of their classrooms and sent to Auschwitz and murdered during the Holocaust.
Subject/Index Terms:
Stabekk, Norway
Deportation of children from Stabekk, Norway to Auschwitz
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945), commemoration
Post-Holocaust Commemoration
Auschwitz (Concentration camp)--Complex of concentration and extermination camps
Contemporary commemoration of the Holocaust
Creators:
Municipality of Stabekk, Norway (2008)
Sub-Collection 20: RG-23.20, Lwow ghetto, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.

Lvov (in Polish, Lwow; in Ukrainian, Lviv; in German, Lemberg), city in East Galicia, now part of the Ukraine.

Based on the terms of the Nazi-Soviet pact signed just before the war broke out, the Soviets occupied Lvov in September 1939. Soon, 100,000 Jewish refugees arrived from the German- occupied areas of western Poland.

Germany attacked the Soviet Union, its former ally in June 1941. As soon as the Germans entered Lvov, Jews were murdered. A ghetto was established in November 1941. Lvov ghetto was liberated in 1944, when several hundred Jews came out of hiding.

Subject/Index Terms:
Lviv (Ukraine)
Lwow  (Poland: ghetto)
Lvov (Poland: ghetto)
Lemberg (Poland: ghetto)
Lviv (USSR )
Lwow (Poland)
Missing persons ad
Official announcement of ghetto establishment
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Jewish newspapers in the ghettos (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.20.01, Search advertisement for a Jewish female under a false identity, ca 1943., circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An advertisement is distributed for a missing female who might be using a false identity. Polish.
Subject/Index Terms:
Lvov (Poland: ghetto)
Lwow  (Poland: ghetto)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Lviv (USSR )
Lwow (Poland)
Lwow ( Poland: ghetto)
Lemberg (Poland: ghetto)
Missing persons ad
Life under false identity
False identity
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Jewish newspapers in the ghettos (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.20.02, German soldiers entering Lwow (Lviv) Ukraine, passing by Zamartynow Street, 1940--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German soldiers entering Lwow (Lviv) Ukraine, passing by Zamartynow Street
Subject/Index Terms:
Lwow  (Poland: ghetto)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Lviv (USSR )
Lvov (Poland: ghetto)
Lwow (Poland)
Lwow ( Poland: ghetto)
Lwow Province Statistics
Lemberg (Poland: ghetto)
Ukraine (1941-1945)
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish newspapers in the ghettos (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.20.03, Official announcement on the establishment of a ghetto in Lviv, November 1941, Bundesarchiv, 003-037-085, copyrighted, November 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Official announcement on the establishment of a ghetto in Lviv, November 1941, Bundesarchiv, 003-037-085, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
Official announcement of ghetto establishment
Lwow  (Poland: ghetto)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Lviv (USSR )
Lvov (Poland: ghetto)
Lwow (Poland)
Lwow ( Poland: ghetto)
Lwow Province Statistics
Lemberg (Poland: ghetto)
Jewish newspapers in Poland in Polish language
Creators:
Jewish newspapers in the ghettos (1940 -- 1945)
Jewish newspapers in Polish
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 21: RG-23.21, Camp scenes before the liberation, circa 1943--1945Add to your cart.
Camp scences before the liberation
Subject/Index Terms:
Arrival at a camp
Transport trains
Deportation to concentration camps
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.21.01, Arriving to a camp, 1943-1945, 1943-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish passangers emerge from a newly-arrived train, likely to a concentration camp,  1943-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation to concentration camps
Transport trains
Transports
Arrival at a camp
Photographs, concentration camps
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 22: RG-23.22, Humiliation and mockery perpetrated by Germans, circa 1933-1945Add to your cart.
This sub-collection contains documents relating to German perpetrations by use of humiliation and mockery.
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.22.01, A Jewish man in religious attire prays over the dead, while the German soldiers laugh at the scene, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
A Jewish man in religious attire prays over the dead, while the German soldiers laugh at the scene.
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 23: RG-23.23, Cracow ghetto, circa 1939-- 1945Add to your cart.

Cracow (in Polish, Krakow), is a city in southern Poland.

German troops occupied Cracow on September 6, 1939 and immediately began persecuting the city's Jews. In late October the Nazis made Cracow the capital of the General Gouvernement; this made the persecution even worse for Cracow's Jews. In early December the Germans carried out a terror action in which several synagogues were burnt down and much Jewish property was seized.

In March, the German authorities established a ghetto in the southern part of Cracow. On March 20, the ghetto was closed off with a wall and a barbed-wire fence. They were subjected to terrible overcrowding and unsanitary conditions.

During its existence, several resistance organizations were active in the Cracow ghetto. Soviet forced liberated the Cracow ghetto in January 1945.

Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Jewish life in Cracow (Poland), pre-war
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Anti-Jewish regulations
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.23.01, Cracow ghetto, entrance, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The entrance to the Cracow (Poland) Ghetto, ca 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
day-to-day life in ghettos
Main entrance, Cracow Ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.23.02, A Cracow streetcar worker hanging a sign separating Jewish and non-Jewish passengers, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Cracow streetcar worker hanging a sign separating Jewish and non-Jewish passengers.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs, ghettos
Antisemitism in Poland
Antisemitism
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Jewish life in Cracow (Poland), pre-war
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Jewish Life in Interwar Poland and Ukraine
Anti-Jewish regulations
Anti-semitic laws
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Poland (1939 --1945)
Creators:
Jewish Council (Judenrat) of the Cracow Ghetto (1940 --1941)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.23.03, A decree evicting certain categories of Jews from Cracow, issued by Governor of Cracow district Otto Wachter, February 1941, Poland, 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A decree evicting certain categories of Jews from Cracow, issued by Governor of Cracow district Otto Wachter, February 1941, Poland.
Subject/Index Terms:
Provisions of Jewish Residence in Cracow, February 1941
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Anti-Jewish regulations
Nazi anti-Jewish measures, actions and legislations
General-Government (German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945)
Resettlement of Jews from Cracow, 1939-1944
Creators:
German civil authorities, Poland (1939 -- 1945)
Wachter, Otto, Dr. (Governor of the District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia) (1939-1945)
German civil and military administration in Poland, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Office of German governor of Cracow district, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.23.04, A Jewish family before deportation from the Cracow ghetto, Poland, 1941-1943, 1941--1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Jewish family before deportation from the Cracow ghetto, Poland, 1941-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation to concentration camps
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Photographs, ghettos
Deportations from Cracow Ghetto
Polish ghettos
Photographs, family members
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.23.05, Cracow ghetto, a Jewish couple on a street, Poland, ca 1941, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph shows a Jewish couple walking on the street in the Cracow ghetto, Poland, ca 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
day-to-day life in ghettos
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Photographs, ghettos
Polish ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish Council (Judenrat) of the Cracow Ghetto (1940 --1941)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.23.06, Cracow ghetto, belongings of the deportees to the Belzec death camp are left on the street, March 1943, March 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A scene of a street lined with belongings of newly-deported Jews from the Cracow ghetto in Poland to the Belzec death camp. The owners are not in the picture. Cracow (Krakow) Poland, March 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation to Belzec
Deportation to Belzec death camp from Cracow ghetto
Deportations from Cracow Ghetto
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Deportation to concentration camps
Belzec extermination camp (Lublin, Poland)
Confiscation of Jewish property without German authorization
Confiscation of personal belongings and property
Photographs, ghettos
Poland (1939 --1945)
Liquidation of ghettos
Liquidation of Cracow ghetto, 1943
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.23.07, Cracow ghetto, elderly Jewish men completing forced labor, 1941-1943, 1941-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Elderly Jewish men completing forced labor in the Cracow (Krakow) ghetto in Poland, 1941-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish elders
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Forced labor in ghettos
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Public humiliations
Photographs, ghettos
Poland (1939--1945)
Forced labor
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.23.08, Cracow ghetto, hostages, ca 1943, circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Hostages are lined up against the wall of a building with their hands up in the Cracow (Krakow) ghetto, Poland, ca 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Hostages in the ghettos
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Photographs, ghettos
Roundups and Actions in the ghettos
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Liquidation of Cracow ghetto, 1943
Poland (1939--1945)
Round-ups and aktion in the ghettos--Poland (1939-1945)
Taking of hostages, Poland
Executions, ghettos
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.23.09, Cracow ghetto, Jewish policemen, second from the right, Simcha Spiro, head of the Jewish police, ca 1941., circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Cracow ghetto, Jewish policemen, second from the right, Simcha Spiro, head of the Jewish police, Poland, ca 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Spiro-Szapira, Simcha, Head of Cracow Jewish order police
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Poland (1939 --1945)
Collaboration in ghettos
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Creators:
Jewish ghetto police of Cracow (circa 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.23.10, Cracow ghetto, Jews are deported from the ghetto, Poland, 1941-1943, 1941-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jews are walking in the Cracow Ghetto to be deported, Poland, 1941-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Round-ups and aktion in the ghettos--Poland (1939-1945)
Cracow (Poland)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
Deportations from Cracow Ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Liquidation of Cracow ghetto, 1943
Liquidation of ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-23.23.11, Cracow, a sign at the public park, Jews are not allowed, in Polish and German, 1939-1945, 1939-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Cracow (Krakow), Poland, a sign at the public park, reading: "Jews are prohibited from entering the park," in both  Polish and German, 1939-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Anti-Jewish regulations
Nazi anti-Jewish measures, actions and legislations
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Anti-Jewish signs
Poland (1939--1945)
Antisemitism
Antisemitism in Poland
Creators:
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-23.23.12, Cracow, Poland, Jews are being deported, in the Sukienice Square, ca 1940, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Cracow, Poland, Jews are being deported, in the Sukienice Square, ca 1940.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation to concentration camps
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Round-ups and aktion in the ghettos--Poland (1939-1945)
Liquidation of ghettos
Deportations from Cracow Ghetto
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Poland (1939--1945)
German Soldiers
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-23.23.13, Decree establising a ghetto in Cracow, Poland, March 1941., March 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Decree establising a ghetto in Cracow (Krakow), Poland, in Polish, March 1941. Issued by Wachterm Otto/his office (governor of District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia).
Subject/Index Terms:
Official announcement of ghetto establishment
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Nazi anti-Jewish measures, actions and legislations
General-Government (German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945)
Resettlement of Jews from Cracow, 1939-1944
Anti-Jewish regulations
Poland (1939--1945)
Creators:
Wachter, Otto, Dr. (Governor of the District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia) (1939-1945)
German civil authorities, Poland (1939 -- 1945)
German civil and military administration in Poland, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Office of German governor of Cracow district, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-23.23.14, Deportation of Jews from the Cracow ghetto, ca 1943, circa 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Deportation of Jews from the Cracow ghetto, Poland, ca 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation to concentration camps
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Deportations from Cracow Ghetto
Round-ups and aktion in the ghettos--Poland (1939-1945)
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Poland (1939--1945)
Liquidation of Cracow ghetto, 1943
Liquidation of ghettos
Creators:
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-23.23.15, Smashed and broken tombstones in the Jewish cemetery in Cracow, Poland, ca 1942, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of smashed and broken tombstones in a Jewish cemetery in Cracow (Krakow), Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish cemetery
Jewish property attacks
Kraków (Poland)
Cracow (Poland)
Destruction of Jewish property, 1933-1945
Destruction of Jewish cemeteries, 1933-1945
Poland (1939 --1945)
Anti-Jewish actions
Photographs, Cracow
Nazi anti-Jewish measures, actions and legislations
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-23.23.16, Dolek Liebeskind and Shimshon Draenger, members of the Jewish resistance in the Cracow ghetto, Poland, 1941-1943, 1941-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Dolek Liebeskind and Shimshon Draenger, members of the Jewish resistance in the Cracow ghetto, Poland, 1941-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Jewish resistance
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Liebeskind, Dolek--Member of Jewish resistance in Cracow ghetto
Draenger, Shimshon-- Member of Jewish resistance in Cracow ghetto
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Organized resistance in ghettos
Photographs, Cracow
Photographs, ghettos
Jewish resistance organizations in ghettos, Poland
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Wartime Jewish photographer in German-occupied and controlled territories (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-23.23.17, Three elderly Jewish people near the entrance of the Cracow ghetto, German military policeman directs traffic, ca 1940, circa 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Three elderly Jewish people near the entrance of the Cracow ghetto, German military policeman directs traffic, ca 1940.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Jewish elderly, Cracow ghetto
German Soldiers
German police and security forces, Poland
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 18: RG-23.23.18, Prisoner inscriptions on the wall of Cell No.2 in the Gestapo prison at 2 Pomorska street, Cracow, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Prisoner inscriptions on the wall of Cell No.2 in the Gestapo prison at 2 Pomorska street, Cracow
Subject/Index Terms:
Kraków (Poland)
Cracow (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
Pomorska street, Gestapo prison in Cracow
German police and security forces, Poland
Political prisoners, Polish
Prisoners, Jewish
Prison cells
Resistance to German forces in Poland
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Post-liberation photographers (1944-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 19: RG-23.23.19, Kazimierz, a Jewish community in Cracow, taking possessions to the ghetto, ca 1941, ca 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A woman from the Jewish community of Kazimierz in Cracow moves her belongings to the Cracow (Krakow) ghetto in Poland, ca 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Relocation to ghetto
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Jewish personal belongings
Photographs, Cracow
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Polish ghettos
Kazimierez, Jewish community in Cracow
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Wartime Jewish photographer in German-occupied and controlled territories (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 20: RG-23.23.20, Ordinance issued by Otto Wechter, Governor of the District of Cracow, regarding the eviction of some Jews from Cracow, 1941, February 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Ordinance issued by Dr. Wechter, governor of the District of Cracow, regarding the eviction of tsomeJews from the city of Cracow who do not have special permission documents (likely for work). Poland, February 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Official announcement of ghetto establishment
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Anti-Jewish regulations
Nazi anti-Jewish measures, actions and legislations
Provisions of Jewish Residence in Cracow, February 1941
General-Government (German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945)
Resettlement of Jews from Cracow, 1939-1944
Creators:
Wachter, Otto, Dr. (Governor of the District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia) (1939-1945)
German civil authorities, Poland (1939 -- 1945)
German civil and military administration in Poland, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Office of German governor of Cracow district, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 21: RG-23.23.21, Performance in the Cracow ghetto, German officer and a Jewish policeman sits in the front row, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Performance in the Cracow ghetto, German officer and a Jewish policeman sits in the front row, Poland, ca 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Entertainment, Cracow ghetto
Jewish Order Police
Jewish Order Police in ghettos
Jewish Order Service, policemen
Judischer Ordnungdienst (or Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jewish Ghetto Police)
Relations between Jewish ghetto administration and German administration in the Holocaust
Cultural life in ghettos
Poland (1939 --1945)
Photographs, Cracow ghetto
Collaboration of Jewish Administration in the Holocaust
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 22: RG-23.23.22, Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, Cracow, 1940-1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Gazeta Zydowska, 1940-1941, Cracow. Pages 1-35 can be found individually as a subdocument.
Subject/Index Terms:
Gazeta Zydowska, newspaper
Cracow (Poland)
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Kraków (Poland)
Krakow (Poland: Ghetto)
Entertainment, Cracow ghetto
day-to-day life in ghettos
Creators:
Gazeta Zydowska (Jewish Gazette), publisher and editorial board
Sub-Collection 24: RG-23.24, Invasion of Poland, circa 1939- 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War or the Fourth Partition of Poland in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September 1939 following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Nomonhan incident on 16 September 1939. The campaign ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.

The morning after the Gleiwitz incident, German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west. As the Germans advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces then withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom.The two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, though in the end their aid to Poland in the September campaign was very limited.

The Soviet Red Army's invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, rendered the Polish plan of defence obsolete. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered an emergency evacuation of all troops to neutral Romania.[18] On 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock, German and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland. The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, though Poland never formally surrendered.

On 8 October, after an initial period of military administration, Germany directly annexed western Poland and the former Free City of Danzig and placed the remaining block of territory under the administration of the newly established General Government. The Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance organizations formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the military exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West, an armed force loyal to the Polish government in exile.

Subject/Index Terms:
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Poland (Europe)
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Prisoners of War, Polish
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Soviet military officials (July 1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.24.01, Jews are rounded-up for deportation, Poland, ca 1939., circa 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jews are rounded-up for deportation from a ghetto, Poland, ca 1939.
Subject/Index Terms:
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Poland (Europe)
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation of Jews from Poland
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.24.02, German soldier cuts off a beard of a Jewish man, humiliation scene, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
German soldier cuts off a beard of a Jewish man, humiliation scene.
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.24.03, Execution scene, Poland, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.
An execution scene in Poland.
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.24.04, The Czeladz ghetto,  Poland, ca 1941, ca 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Czeladz, Poland is a town located in Southern Poland. During the Second World War, there was a small ghetto in Czeladz, that held apx. 800 Jews, who were mostly deported to Auschwitz. This photogrpah shows a group of people standing in a street in Czeladz, likely part of the ghetto. Poland, 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (Europe)
Czeladz (Poland: Ghetto)
Czeladz (Poland)
Daily life in ghettos, Czeladz
Poland (1939--1945)
German-occupied Poland
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.24.05, German police patrol at Wawel Castle, Cracow, 1939, Bundesarchiv, 121-0293, copyrighted, 1939Add to your cart.
German police patrol at Wawel Castle, Cracow, 1939, Bundesarchiv, 121-0293, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
Cracow (Poland)
Wawel Castle (Cracow, Poland)
Poland (Europe)
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
German Soldiers
German police and security forces, Poland
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.24.06, Poland First to Fight, propaganda poster, 1939, 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
"Poland --First to Fight," propaganda  poster from 1939. Designed by Polish artist Marek Żuławski, who moved to England in 1936.
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (Europe)
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Żuławski, Marek, Polish artist
Propaganda posters, Polish
Poland (1939--1945)
Anti-war sentiment, Poland
Creators:
Polish government officials (July 1944)
Zulawski, Marek (1908-1985)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.24.07, The Royal Castle in Warsaw burning after a German shellfire on 17 September 1939, public domain, September 1939Add to your cart.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw burning after a German shellfire on 17 September 1939, public domain.
Subject/Index Terms:
Royal Castle (Warsaw)
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (Europe)
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
War damages
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
German bombing in Poland, 1939-1945
Creators:
Polish photographer (circa 1933--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.24.08, Signing of the Soviet-German non-agression Pact, Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, US National Archives, August 23, 1939Add to your cart.
Signing of the Soviet-German non-agression Pact, Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, August 23, 1939, Moscow.
Subject/Index Terms:
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939)
Moscow (Russia)
Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Party and Prime Minister of the  USSR, 1879 -- 1953
Molotov, Vyacheslav, Soviet Foreign Minister, 1930-1941
von Ribbentrop, Joachim, Nazi German Foreign Minister, 1938-1945
Photographs, pre-Second World War
USSR, pre-Second World War, 1922-1939
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Soviet military officials (July 1944)
The United States National Archives
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.24.09, German soldiers march through Warsaw, 5 October 1939, Public domain, October 5, 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German soldiers march through Warsaw on October 5, 1939
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (Europe)
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Warsaw (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
German military units entering a city
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
German Soldiers
Nazi Soldiers
Photographs, German-occupied Poland
Creators:
Polish photographer (circa 1933--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.24.10, Jewish prisoners in Warsaw liberated by the Polish Home Army soldiers, Warsaw Uprising, public domain, circa 1944Add to your cart.
Jewish prisoners in Warsaw liberated by the Polish Home Army soldiers, Warsaw Uprising, public domain
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw Polish Uprising
Warsaw (Poland)
Polish Home Army
Liberation from German-occupation
Creators:
The Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) (circa 1942--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 11: RG-23.24.11, Jews from villages in rural Poland are forced to move to a ghetto, Poland, 1939-1945, 1939-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jews from villages, likely in rural Poland, are forced to re-locate to a ghetto. A Nazi soldier stands in the foreground. Poland, 1939-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (Europe)
Photographs, German-occupied Poland
Poland (1939 --1945)
Nazi Soldiers
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
German Soldiers
Relocation to ghetto
Ghettos, Poland
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 12: RG-23.24.12, Nazi-propaganda poster portraying the mass execution of Polish nationals and officers by Russia in the Katyn Forest, Russia, April 1940, April 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Nazi-propaganda poster, in Czech, portraying the mass execution of Polish nationals and Polish officers by  the Soviet Secret Police (NKVD) in the Katyn Forest, Russia, April 1940, Bundesarchiv, copyrighted
Subject/Index Terms:
Political prisoners, Polish
Prisoners of War, Polish
Warfare in Northern Russia
Nazi war propaganda
Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, Nazi Germany, 1933-1945
Czech, language
Soviet Secret Police (NKVD)
Mass executions
USSR (1940-1945)
Polish Nationals
Katyn forest (USSR)
Creators:
Polish government officials (July 1944)
Nazi-German Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (RMVP) (March 1933-May 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 13: RG-23.24.13, A German and a Russian officer shake hands at the end of the Invasion of Poland, September 1939, September 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A German and a Russian officer shake hands at the end of the Invasion of Poland, September 1939. TASS, public domain.
Subject/Index Terms:
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Soviet invasion of Poland, 17 September 1939
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
Poland (1939--1945)
Military Uniforms (Soviet)
German-Soviet relations
Military officers, Nazi-German
Military Officers, Soviet
Creators:
USSR military photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 14: RG-23.24.14, Polish prisoners of war captured by the Soviet Army after invasion of Poland, September 1939, public domain, September 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Polish prisoners of war captured by the Soviet Army after invasion of Poland, September 1939, public domain
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (1939--1945)
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Soviet invasion of Poland, 17 September 1939
Soldiers, Soviet Red Army
Prisoners of War, Polish
Photographs, Second World War
Photographs, German-occupied Poland
Polish soldiers
Creators:
USSR military photographers, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Soviet military officials (July 1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 15: RG-23.24.15, Zablocie, Poland, German officer takes picture of Orthodox Jews, ca 1939, circa 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Zablocie, Poland, German officer takes picture of Orthodox Jews, ca 1939.
Subject/Index Terms:
Zablocie (southwest Poland)
Poland (1939 --1945)
Photographs, German-occupied Poland
Military officers, Nazi-German
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
Orthodox Jews
Photographs, Second World War
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 16: RG-23.24.16, A postcard showing Jewish deportation from a Polish town, 1942, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A postcard with a picture of Jewish deportation from a Polish town, 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs, German-occupied Poland
Poland (1939--1945)
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Round-ups and aktion in the ghettos--Poland (1939-1945)
postcards, anti-Jewish
Postcards, Jewish deportations
Deportations from ghettos
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 17: RG-23.24.17, Three young Jewish boys drag a water barrel in a ghetto in Poland, 1939-1945, circa 1941- 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Three young Jewish boys drag a water barrel in a ghetto in Poland, 1939-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
day-to-day life in ghettos
Means of adaptation and survival in the ghettos
Poland (1939 --1945)
Ghettos, Poland
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 25: RG-23.25, Riga ghetto, circa 1941- 1944Add to your cart.

The Riga Ghetto was a small area in Maskavas Forštate, neighborhood of Riga, Latvia, designated by the Nazis where Jews from Latvia, and later from Germany, were forced to live during World War II. On October 25, 1941, the Nazis relocated all Jews from Riga and the vicinity to the ghetto while the non-Jewish inhabitants were evicted. Most of the Latvian Jews (about 24,000) were killed on November 30 and December 8, 1941 in the Rumbula massacre. The Nazis transported a large number of German Jews to the ghetto; most of them were later killed in massacres.

While the Riga Ghetto is commonly referred to as a single entity, in fact there were several "ghettos". The first was the large Latvian ghetto. After the Rumbula massacre, the surviving Latvian Jews were concentrated in a smaller area within the original ghetto, which became known as the "small ghetto". The small ghetto was divided into men's and women's sections. The area of the ghetto not allocated to the small ghetto was then reallocated to the Jews being deported from Germany, and became known as the German ghetto.

Subject/Index Terms:
Riga ghetto
Riga (Latvia)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.25.01, A photograph of the Riga ghetto from outside a barbed wire fence, after aktion, Riga, Latvia, 1941-1943, 1941-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of the Riga ghetto from outside a barbed wire fence. Riga, Latvia, 1941-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Riga (Latvia)
Riga (Latvia: ghetto)
Latvia (1939-1945)
Photographs, ghettos
Aktions in ghettos, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.25.02, Local women posing with entering German soldiers, Riga, Latvia, July 1941, July 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Local women posing with the entering German soldiers, Riga, July 1941, Bundesarchiv, photo 183-L19397, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
German military officials
German military units entering a city
Riga (Latvia)
Bundesarchiv, German Federal Archives
Perceptions and reactions of local populations to German invasions, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Civilian population, Latvian, 1941
Latvia (1939-1945)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Sub-Collection 26: RG-23.26, Sobibor concentration camp, circa 1942- 1943Add to your cart.

Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp located on the outskirts of the village of Sobibór, Lublin Voivodeship of the Nazi German General Government (occupied Poland). The camp was part of Operation Reinhard and the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibór. Situated near the rural county's only major town of Włodawa (called Wolzek by the Germans). Jews from Poland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union, possibly as well as some non-Jewish Soviet POWs, were transported to Sobibór by rail and suffocated in gas chambers fed by the exhaust of large petrol engines. One source states that up to 200,000 people were murdered at Sobibór. Sobibór survivor Thomas Blatt later wrote that "In the Hagen court proceedings against former Sobibór Nazis, Professor Wolfgang Scheffler, who served as an expert, estimated the total figure of murdered Jews at a minimum of 250,000."

After a successful revolt on October 14, 1943, about half of the 600 prisoners attempting to escape Sobibór escaped successfully; of these, about 50 evaded recapture. Shortly after the revolt, the Germans closed the camp, bulldozed the earth, and planted it over with pine trees to conceal its location. The site is occupied by the Sobibór Museum displaying a pyramid of ashes and crushed bones of the victims, collected from the cremation pits thereafter.

Subject/Index Terms:
Sobibor (Poland: extermination camp)
Sobibor Revolt
Creators:
Sobibor Museum (1946-2012)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.26.01, Memorial plaque at Sobibor death camp, circa 1970sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The memorial plaque at Sobibor death camp.

" At this site, between the years 1942 and 1943, there existed a Nazi death camp where 250,000 Jews and aprroximately 1000 Poles were murdered on October 14th, 1943. During the armed revolt by the Jewish prisoners the Nazis were overpowered and several hundred prisoners escaped to freedom. Following this revolt the death camp ceased to exist."

Subject/Index Terms:
Sobibor death camp memorial
Holocaust Memorialization
Sobibor (Poland: extermination camp)
Sobibor uprising, October 1943
Contemporary commemoration of the Holocaust
Poland (1939--1945)
Poland (1945--1991)
Creators:
Polish government (circa 1970s)
Sobibor Museum (1946-2012)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.26.02, Sobibor Death Camp Monument, Poland, ca 1960s, circa 1960sAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
The monument at the site of the Sobibor death camp. After the uprising in October 1943, the camp was destroyed. In the post-war years, survivors and the Polish government created a monument and a commemorative plaque for the site.
Subject/Index Terms:
Contemporary commemoration of the Holocaust
Sobibor death camp memorial
Sobibor uprising, October 1943
Sobibor (Poland: extermination camp)
Holocaust Memorialization
Poland (1939 --1945)
Poland (1945--1991)
Creators:
Sobibor Museum (1946-2012)
Polish government (circa 1970s)
Sub-Collection 27: RG-23.27, German invasion of Western Europe, circa 1940Add to your cart.
German invason of Western Europe.
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.27.01, Deportation of Jews from a West European country, Alex Schwartzkopf CollectionAdd to your cart.
Deportation of Jews from a West European country, Alex Schwartzkopf Collection.
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 28: RG-23.28, Deportation and transport scenes, circa 1939-1944Add to your cart.
Deportation and transport scenes.
Subject/Index Terms:
Transports
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation to concentration camps
Treblinka (Poland: extermination camp)
Auschwitz-Birkenau, concentration camp complex (Poland)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.28.01, Arrival of a Jewish transport, circa 1939--1944Add to your cart.
Arrival of a Jewish transport.
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.28.02, Deportation of German Jews to a concentration camp in the East, 1939-1945, 1939-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German Jews are deported to a concentration camp in the East, likely in Poland. 1929-1945
Subject/Index Terms:
Germany (1939--1945)
Photographs, German Jewish deportations
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation of German Jews
Deportations to concentration camps
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.28.03, A photograph showing Jews to be transported to Treblinka death camp, 1939-1945, 1939-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph showing Jews preparing to enter a cattle train to be transported to Treblinka death camp in Poland. 1939-1944.
Subject/Index Terms:
Treblinka (Poland: extermination camp)
Transport trains
Transports
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation to Treblinka extermination camp
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Photographs, transports and deportations
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.28.04, Hungarian Jews arrive at Auschwitz-Birkenau, ca 1944, ca 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Hungarian Jews are arriving at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation of Hungarian Jews
Arrival at a camp
Transport trains
Transports
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportations to Auschwitz concentration camp
Holocaust, Hungarian
Auschwitz (Concentration camp)--Complex of concentration and extermination camps
Photographs, Auschwitz concentration camp
Photographs, concentration camps
Poland (1939 --1945)
Auschwitz II-Birkenau (extermination camp)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 29: RG-23.29, Theresienstadt, circa 1941-1945Add to your cart.
Theresienstadt was a ghetto in Czechoslavakia. The Nazis built Theresienstadt for the purpose of concentrating most of the Jews of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia as well as certain categories of Jews from Germany and Western Europe, such as famous or wealthy Jews, those with special talents, and old people. Ultimately, the Nazis intended presenting Theresienstadt as a model ghetto, but at the same time, slowly deport the Jews at Theresienstadt to extermination camps.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.29.01, Theresienstadt ghetto, musical performance. Czechoslovakia, 1941-1945, 1941- 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photgraph of a band and performer on stage in the Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia. 1941-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Art in camps and ghettos
Art in ghettos
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Theresienstadt ghetto
Music and performances in Theresienstadt ghetto
Jewish Star of David, ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
German personnel in ghettos, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.29.02, Theresienstadt ghetto, courtyard in the small fortress, 1941-1945, 1941-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The entrance wall to the Theresienstadt ghetto, which used to be a garrison town. Theresienstadt was constructed in two parts: the small fortress, which used to be a prison, and the large fortress, which was the town of Terezin (in Czech). This is a photograph of a courtyard in the small fortress.
Subject/Index Terms:
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Theresienstadt ghetto, small fortress
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Photographs, Theresienstadt ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.29.03, Theresienstadt ghetto, in the offices of ghetto establishments., Czechoslovakia, 1941-1945, 1941-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph showing workers in the offices of Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia, 1941-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Living conditions in ghettos
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Working, ghettos
Ghetto administration and offices, Theresienstadt, 1941-1945
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Photographs, Theresienstadt ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Jewish administration of the ghettos (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.29.04, Entrance to the Theresienstadt Ghetto with a sign "Arbeit Macht Frei," Czechoslovakia, 1941-1945, 1941-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Entrance gate to Theresienstadt ghetto, with sign "Arbeit Macht Frei," or "work will set you free." Czechoslovakia, 1941-1945
Subject/Index Terms:
Arbeit Macht Frei
Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)
Theresienstadt ghetto
Entrance to Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Photographs, Theresienstadt ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 30: RG-23.30, Mauthausen, circa 1938-1945Add to your cart.

Mauthausen is a concentration camp located near an unused stone quarry about three miles from the town of Mauthausen in Upper Austria. Mauthausen was opened in August 1938, just a few months after the "Anschluss," the annexing of Austria by Germany. Teh first prisoners to arrive were forced to build the camp and work in the quarry. The work in the quarry proved deadly for many inmates.

The camp complex was guarded by the brutal SS Death's Head Units. Prisoners held various positions of authority, such as camp elder, the elder's deputies, and camp registrar. The work in the camp was overseen by Kapos and the camp blocks were handled by the block elder, block registrar, and room elders. All of the prisoners in authority positions were given special privileges.

The Jews interned in Mauthausen were treated to dig tunnels at the sub-camps for underground ammunition factories and were expected to do so at an unbearably fast pace.

Subject/Index Terms:
Mauthausen, German Concentration camp
Mauthausen concentration camp, liberation and its aftermath
Forced labor in concentration camps
Nazi atrocities
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.30.01, Civilians of Mauthausen, Austria making coffins for the former inmates of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1938-1945, 1938-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Civilians of Mauthausen, Austria making coffins for the former inmates of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1938-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Mauthausen (Austria: Concentration Camp)
Mauthausen (Austria)
Austria (1939--1945)
Civilians, Austrian
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Civilian labor for Nazi-Germany
Photographs, German-annexed Austria
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Austrian photographer, 1938-1945 (1938-1945)
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.30.02, Forced labor of inmates of Mauthausen concentration camp in the granite quarry, Austria, 1938-1945, 1938-1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph showing inmates of Mauthausen concentratin camp in Austria being forced to work in the granite quarry, where throusands of prisoners were worked to death. 1938-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Forced labor in concentration camps
Forced labor in the quarry (Mauthausen)
Nazi atrocities
Mauthausen (Austria)
Mauthausen (Austria: Concentration Camp)
Austria (1939--1945)
Photographs, German-annexed Austria
Photographs, Mauthausen concentration camp
Photographs, concentration camps
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.30.03, The original memorial on the site of Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria, ca 1946, circa 1946Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The first memorial on the site of Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria, ca 1946. Since this monument, the memorialization of the camp has expanded and changed.
Subject/Index Terms:
Mauthausen concentration camp, liberation and its aftermath
Holocaust Memorialization
Contemporary commemoration of the Holocaust
Mauthausen (Austria: Concentration Camp)
Mauthausen (Austria)
Aftermath of liberation
Austria (1946-present)
Mauthausen memorial, Austria
Creators:
Mathausen Memorial Museum (1970)
Sub-Collection 31: RG-23.31, Bulgaria, circa 1940-1944Add to your cart.

Despite a series of anti-Jewish legislation starting in 1940 (Jews were excluded from public service, banned from certain areas, restricted economically, and not allowed to intermarry) - see The Law for protection of the nation, Bulgaria was the only country besides Albania, Denmark and Finland to successfully resist the deportation of its Jewish population. Plans were made to deport Jews in 1943, and 20,000 were expelled from Sofia, but protests (initiated by Dimitar Peshev) from political and clerical leaders stopped further cooperation, saving all of the 50,000 Jews in the country.

However, in March 1943 almost 12,000 Jews in Thrace and Macedonia, both of which were administered by the Bulgarian government on behalf of the Nazis, were deported to Auschwitz and Treblinka.

Subject/Index Terms:
Bulgarian Jews
Bulgaria (Eastern Europe)
Sofia (Capital of Bulgaria)
Forced labor
Transport trains
Creators:
Military of Bulgaria (1940--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.31.01, Jews from Sofia, Bulgaria are dispatched to countryside for forced labor, 1940-1941, 1940-1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jews from the city of Sofia are dispatched to countryside for forced labor.
Subject/Index Terms:
Photographs, transports and deportations
Bulgaria (1939--1945)
Sofia (Capital of Bulgaria)
Bulgaria (Eastern Europe)
Bulgarian Jews
Transport trains
Forced labor
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.31.02, Bulgarian Jews building a road in a forced labor brigade, 1939-1945, circa 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Bulgarian Jews building a road in a forced labor brigade, USHMM copyrighted photograph.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bulgaria (Eastern Europe)
Bulgarian Jews
Forced labor
Bulgaria (1939--1945)
Forced labor by German soldiers, Bulgarian Jews
Photographs, Second World War
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.31.03, Bulgarian Jews work on a road construction in a forced labor brigade, 1939-1945, 1939--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Bulgarian Jews work on a road construction in a forced labor brigade, USHMM copyrighted photograph.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bulgaria (Eastern Europe)
Bulgarian Jews
Forced labor
Bulgaria (1939--1945)
Forced labor by German soldiers, Bulgarian Jews
Photographs, Second World War
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.31.04, Jewish and Bulgarian soldiers outside a canteen at a forced labor camp, 1941-1945, 1941--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish and Bulgarian soldiers outside a canteen at a forced labor camp, 1941-1945, Bulgaria. USHMM copyrighted photograph.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bulgarian Jews
Bulgaria (Eastern Europe)
Bulgarian soldiers
Forced labor
Jewish soldiers
Forced labor by German soldiers, Bulgarian Jews
Forced labor camps
Bulgaria (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
Jewish Brigade (1944 -- 1945)
Military of Bulgaria (1940--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.31.05, Jewish forced laborers posing next to a truck, Bulgaria, USHMM copyrighted photograph, 1941-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish forced laborers posing next to a truck, Bulgaria, USHMM copyrighted photograph.
Subject/Index Terms:
Bulgaria (Eastern Europe)
Bulgarian Jews
Forced labor
Forced labor by German soldiers, Bulgarian Jews
Bulgaria (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM)
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Sub-Collection 32: RG-23.32, Yugoslavia, undatedAdd to your cart.

Germany carved up Yugoslavia with most of it going to the fascist Independent State of Croatia, who established the notorious Jasenovac concentration camp to exterminate the Serbs, Roma and Jews of Yugoslavia. In Serbia government of Milan Nedić established concentration camps and extermination policies of its own.

The Nazi genocide against Yugoslav Jews began in April 1941. The state of Serbia was completely occupied by the Nazis. The main race laws in the State of Serbia were adopted on 30 April 1941: the Legal Decree on Racial Origins (Zakonska odredba o rasnoj pripadnosti).Jews from Syrmia were sent to Croatian camps, as were many Jews from other parts of Serbia. In rump Serbia, Germans proceeded to round up Jews of Banat and Belgrade, setting up a concentration camp across the river Sava, in the Syrmian part of Belgrade, then given to Independent State of Croatia. The camp, Sajmište, was established to process and eliminate the captured Jews and Serbs. As a result, Emanuel Schäfer, commander of the Security Police and Gestapo in Serbia, famously cabled Berlin after last Jews were killed in May 1942:

"Serbien ist judenfrei."

By the time Serbia and Yugoslavia were liberated in 1944, most of the Serbian Jewry had been murdered. Of the 82,500 Jews of Yugoslavia alive in 1941, only 14,000 (17%) survived the Holocaust. Of the Serbian Jewish population of 16,000, Serbian Nazi puppet government of Milan Nedić, Ministry of Interior, police and secret services murdered approximately 14,500.

Historian Christopher Browning who attended the conference on the subject of Holocaust and Serbian involvement stated:

"Serbia was the only country outside Poland and the Soviet Union where all Jewish victims were killed on the spot without deportation, and was the first country after Estonia to be declared ‘Judenfrei’, a term used by the Nazis during the Holocaust to denote an area free of all Jews.

Subject/Index Terms:
Yugoslavian partisan unit
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.32.01, Jewish partisan in a Yugoslavian partisan unit, undatedAdd to your cart.
Jewish partisan in a Yugoslavian partisan unit.
Subject/Index Terms:
Yugoslavian partisan unit
Creators:
Underground resistance photographer (circa 1939--1944)
Sub-Collection 33: RG-23.33, Treblinka, circa 1945Add to your cart.

Treblinka (Polish pronunciation: [trɛˈblʲinka]) was an extermination camp, created by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II near the village of Treblinka in modern-day Masovian Voivodeship north-east of Warsaw. The camp, which was built as part of Operation Reinhard (most deadly phase of the Final Solution), operated between July 23, 1942 and October 19, 1943. During this time, more than 800,000 Jews as well as unknown numbers of Romani people; men, women, and children were murdered there. Other estimates of the number killed at Treblinka exceed 1,000,000.[9][10]

The camp, managed by the German SS and the Eastern European Trawnikis (a.k.a. Hiwi guards), consisted of two separate units: Treblinka I, and Treblinka II (Totenlager). The first camp was a forced labour Arbeitslager, whose prisoners worked primarily in the nearby gravel mine or irrigation area and in the forest. Between June 1941 and July 23, 1944, more than half of its 20,000 inmates died from summary executions, hunger, disease and mistreatment.

The second camp, Treblinka II, was designed as a death factory. The small number of Jews who were not killed immediately became its Sonderkommandos. These labor units were forced to bury the victims' bodies in mass graves, and later also cremate corpses on massive open-air pyres. Gassing operations at Treblinka II were ended on October 19, 1943, following a revolt by its Sonderkommando in early August. Several German guards were killed and some 300 prisoners escaped; although less than a hundred survived. The camp was then dismantled, and a farmhouse was built on it, in an attempt to hide the evidence of genocide.

Subject/Index Terms:
Treblinka (Poland: extermination camp)
Confiscation of Jewish property without German authorization
Nazi gas chambers
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.33, Treblinka extermination camp, Poland, a photograph of piles of shoes left by murdered prisoners, ca 1945, circa 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Piles and piles of shoes are left behind by the gassed prisoners of Treblinka extermination camp in Poland, ca 1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Treblinka (Poland: extermination camp)
Nazi gas chambers
Confiscation of Jewish property without German authorization
Poland (1939 --1945)
Photographs, concentration camps
Confiscation of personal belongings and property
Mass killing of Jewish population, Second World War
Treblinka (Poland)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 34: RG-23.34, Babi Yar, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Babi Yar, ravine, situated in the northwestern part of Kiev, where the Jews of the Ukrainian capital were systematically massacred. At the southern end of the ravine were two cemeteries, one of which was Jewish.

Kiev was captured by the Twenty-ninth Corps and the Sixth German Army on September 19, 1941. Of its Jewish population of 160,000, some 100,000 had managed to flee before the Germans took the city. Shortly after the German takeover, from September 24 to 28, a considerable number of buildings in the city center, which were being used by the German military administration and the army, were blown up; many Germans (as well as local inhabitants) were killed in the explosions. After the war, it was learned that the sabotage operation had been the work of an NKVD (Soviet security police) detachment that been left behind in the city for that purpose.

On September 26, the Germans held a meeting at which it was decided that in retaliation for the attacks on the German-held installations, the Jews of Kiev would all be put to death. The implementation of the decision to kill the Jews of Kiev was entrusted to Sonderkommando 4a. This unit consisted of the Security Service and the Secret Police; the third company of the Special Duties Waffen-SS battalion; and platoon of the No. 9 police battalion. The unit was reinforced by police battalions Nos. 45 and 305 and by units of the Ukrainian auxiliary police.

On September 28, noticed were posted in the city ordering Jews to appear the following morning, September 29, at 8:00 a.m. at the corner of Melnik and Dekhtyarev streets; they were being assembled there, so the notice said, for their resettlement in new locations.

The next morning, masses of Jews reported at the appointed spot. They were directed to proceed along Melnik Street toward the Jewish cemetery and into an area comprising the cemetery itself and a part of the Babi Yar ravine. The area was cordoned off by a barbed-wire fence and guarded by Sonderkommando police and Waffen-SS men, as well as by Ukrainian policemen. As the Jews approached the ravine, they were forced to hand over all their clothes, and to advance toward the ravine edge, in groups of ten. When they reached the edge, they were gunned down by automatic fire. The shooting was done by several squads of SD and Sipo personnel, police, and Waffen-SS men of the Sonderkommando unit, the squads relieving one another every few hours. When the day ended, the bodies were covered with a thin layer of soil. In two days of shooting, 33, 771 Jews were murdered.

Subject/Index Terms:
Babi Yar (Kiev, Ukraine)
Trials and proceedings over Nazi-German perpetrators
war crimes trials
War crimes trials--Post-WWII
Public humiliations
Execution of Jews at Babi Yar
Babi Yar war crimes trial (Kiev, January 1946)
Otto Olenhdorf trial, Germany (1947)
Paul Blobel trial, Germany (1947)
Denial of memorialization of Babi Yar site, Soviet
Memorialization of Babi Yar site, Ukrainian
Pronicheva, Dina (survivor of Babi Yar massacres)
Creators:
German Military Publications (1939-1940)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Soviet Judicial Authorities (circa 1946)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.34.01, Jews preparing to march to the ravine at Babi Yar, Ukraine, 29 September 1941, 29 September 1941Add to your cart.

On September 28, noticed were posted in the city ordering Jews to appear the following morning, September 29, at 8:00 a.m. at the corner of Melnik and Dekhtyarev streets; they were being assembled there, so the notice said, for their resettlement in new locations.

The next morning, masses of Jews reported at the appointed spot. They were directed to proceed along Melnik Street toward the Jewish cemetery and into an area comprising the cemetery itself and a part of the Babi Yar ravine. The area was cordoned off by a barbed-wire fence and guarded by Sonderkommando police and Waffen-SS men, as well as by Ukrainian policemen. As the Jews approached the ravine, they were forced to hand over all their clothes, and to advance toward the ravine edge, in groups of ten. When they reached the edge, they were gunned down by automatic fire. The shooting was done by several squads of SD and Sipo personnel, police, and Waffen-SS men of the Sonderkommando unit, the squads relieving one another every few hours. When the day ended, the bodies were covered with a thin layer of soil. In two days of shooting, 33, 771 Jews were murdered.

Subject/Index Terms:
Babi Yar (Kiev, Ukraine)
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Final Solution
Execution of Jews at Babi Yar
Babi Yar Massacre, 29 -- 30September 1941
Nazi-perpetuated mass shootings
Ukraine (1941-1945)
Mass executions
Photographs, Nazi-perpetrated massacres and atrocities
Nazi atrocities
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.34.02, A roundup of Jewish girls before execution, ca 1941, Ukraine, ca 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A scene of a roundup of Jewish girls likely before their execution, ca 1941, Ukraine.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ukraine (1941-1945)
Mass executions
Photographs, Nazi-perpetrated massacres and atrocities
Roundups and aktions
Auxiliary police forces, non-German, Second World War
collaboration in the Holocaust
Mass killing of Jewish girls, 1939-1945
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Local photographers, 1933 -- 1945 (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.34.03, German order to Jews of Kiev to report for relocation 29 September 1941, in Russian, Ukrainian, Babi Yar massacre, 29 September 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The German order to Kiev Jews to report at the collection point on 29 September, 1941 for "relocation." The order is in Russian, Ukrannian and German.

On September 28, noticed were posted in the city ordering Jews to appear the following morning, September 29, at 8:00 a.m. at the corner of Melnik and Dekhtyarev streets; they were being assembled there, so the notice said, for their resettlement in new locations.

The next morning, masses of Jews reported at the appointed spot. They were directed to proceed along Melnik Street toward the Jewish cemetery and into an area comprising the cemetery itself and a part of the Babi Yar ravine. The area was cordoned off by a barbed-wire fence and guarded by Sonderkommando police and Waffen-SS men, as well as by Ukrainian policemen. As the Jews approached the ravine, they were forced to hand over all their clothes, and to advance toward the ravine edge, in groups of ten. When they reached the edge, they were gunned down by automatic fire. The shooting was done by several squads of SD and Sipo personnel, police, and Waffen-SS men of the Sonderkommando unit, the squads relieving one another every few hours. When the day ended, the bodies were covered with a thin layer of soil. In two days of shooting, 33, 771 Jews were murdered.

In retaliation to the Soviet Secret police organized explisions in Kiev, the German police and security forces perpetrated the mass murder of Kievan Jews. Ukrainian auxillary police took active part in the mass-killings.

Subject/Index Terms:
Babi Yar (Kiev, Ukraine)
Execution of Jews at Babi Yar
Nazi deception
Nazi-German orders on Jewish residents
Roundups and aktions
Ukraine (1941-1945)
collaboration in the Holocaust
Babi Yar Massacre, 29 -- 30September 1941
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Einsatzgruppen (Nazi police intelligence units "action-groups")
Einsatzgruppe C
Rasch, Otto, commander of Einsatzgruppe C
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.34.04, Dina Pronicheva, a Jewish survivor of the Babi Yar massacre testifies at the war crimes trial in Kiev, Ukraine, January 1946, January 1946Add to your cart.

Dina (Vera) Mironovna Pronicheva (January 7, 1911 -1977) was a Soviet Jewish actress at the Kiev Puppet Theatre, and a survivor of the September 29–30, 1941 Babi Yar massacre in Kiev.

Initially she tore up her identity card and claimed that she was not Jewish and was only seeing someone off, but the Germans decided to kill her anyway so that she would not be a witness. She was then ordered to march to the ravine, to be forced to undress and then be shot. Jumping before being shot and falling on other bodies, she played dead in a pile of corpses. She held perfectly still while the Nazis continued to shoot the wounded or gasping victims. Although the SS had covered the mass grave with earth, she eventually managed to climb through the soil and escape. Since it was dark, she had to avoid the flashlights of the Nazis finishing off the remaining victims still alive, wounded and gasping in the grave.

She was one of the very few survivors of the massacre. At least two other survivors are known.However, she was the only survivor to testify afterwards at the January 1946 Kiev-based war-crimes trial.

She later related her horrifying story to writer Anatoly Kuznetsov, who incorporated it into his novel Babi Yar, published in Yunost in 1966.

Subject/Index Terms:
Pronicheva, Dina (survivor of Babi Yar massacres)
Execution of Jews at Babi Yar
Babi Yar (Kiev, Ukraine)
Babi Yar war crimes trial (Kiev, January 1946)
Babi Yar Massacre, 29 -- 30September 1941
collaboration in the Holocaust
Rasch, Otto, commander of Einsatzgruppe C
War crimes trials--Post-WWII
Kiev (Ukraine)
Nazi crimes against humanity, peace, and war crimes
Survivor testimonies given at war crimes trials
Photographs, war crimes trials
Photographs, witnesses at war crimes trials
Creators:
Soviet Judicial Authorities (circa 1946)
Sub-Collection 35: RG-23.35, Belgium, circa 1940--1944Add to your cart.

Country in Western Europe that was occupied by German forced on May 10, 1940, and surrendered on May 28 on the orders of King Leopold III. The king stayed in Belgium, but the prime minister and many cabinet members fled the country for London where they set up a government-in-exile.

The "Final Solution" was launched in Belgium in the spring of 1942. The last deportations took place in September 1943 during "Operation Iltis" when Jews with Belgian citizenship were deported. Until then, only immigrants and refugees had been sent away. The deportees were rounded up by the German military police, and most were sent to their deaths in Auschwitz. Smaller groups were sent to Buchenwald, Ravensbrueck, and Bergen-Belsen.

No camps expressly for detaining Jews were built in Belgium during the war, however, many were imprisoned alongside captured members of the resistance and political dissidents at Fort Breendonk, near Mechelen.

Soon after the German invasion, the Belgian fort was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interrogation. Of the 3,500 people incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940 and 1944, 1,733 died. Around 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.

Subject/Index Terms:
Breendonk internment camp (Belgium)
Belgium (Europe)
Creators:
Breendonk Memorial Museum (1947)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.35.01, Courtyard of the Breendonk internment camp, BelgiumAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

No camps expressly for detaining Jews were built in Belgium during the war, however, many were imprisoned alongside captured members of the resistance and political dissidents at Fort Breendonk.

Soon after the German invasion, the Belgian fort was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interrogation. Of the 3,500 people incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940 and 1944, 1,733 died. Around 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.

Many Jews who were interned in Breendonk were tranferred to Mechelen transit camp to be deported to Auschwitz,

Subject/Index Terms:
Breendonk internment camp (Belgium)
Belgium (Europe)
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
Police and security forces, Belgium
collaboration in the Holocaust
Mechelen (Belgium: transit camp)
Photographs, postwar, 1945 -- 1988
Military installation
Second World War, 1939 -- 1945
Creators:
Breendonk Memorial Museum (1947)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.35.02, Entrance to the Breendonk internment campAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

No camps expressly for detaining Jews were built in Belgium during the war, however, many were imprisoned alongside captured members of the resistance and political dissidents at Fort Breendonk, near Mechelen.

Soon after the German invasion, the Belgian fort was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interrogation. Of the 3,500 people incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940 and 1944, 1,733 died. Around 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.

Subject/Index Terms:
Belgium (Europe)
Breendonk internment camp (Belgium)
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
Police and security forces, Belgium
collaboration in the Holocaust
Mechelen (Belgium: transit camp)
Photographs, postwar, 1945 -- 1988
Military installation
Second World War, 1939 -- 1945
Creators:
Breendonk Memorial Museum (1947)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.35.03, Entrance to the memorial campsite of Breendonk internment camp, BelgiumAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

The site of Breendonk internment camp in Belgium has been preserved and turned into a memorial site. This is a modern photograph showing the entrance to the memorial campsite.

No camps expressly for detaining Jews were built in Belgium during the war, however, many were imprisoned alongside captured members of the resistance and political dissidents at Fort Breendonk, near Mechelen.

Soon after the German invasion, the Belgian fort was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interrogation. Of the 3,500 people incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940 and 1944, 1,733 died. Around 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.

Subject/Index Terms:
Belgium (Europe)
Breendonk internment camp (Belgium)
Holocaust Memorialization
Holocaust museums
Contemporary commemoration of the Holocaust
Post-Holocaust Commemoration
Holocaust, Jewish (1939 -- 1945), commemoration
Photographs, postwar, 1945 -- 1988
collaboration in the Holocaust
Creators:
Breendonk Memorial Museum (1947)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.35.04, Warning sign at Breendonk internment camp, Belgium, 1940-1943, circa 1941-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

A warning sign at the Breendonk internment camp. In German and French, the sign reads "Stop! Those who tresspass will be shot!"

No camps expressly for detaining Jews were built in Belgium during the war, however, many were imprisoned alongside captured members of the resistance and political dissidents at Fort Breendonk, near Mechelen.

Soon after the German invasion, the Belgian fort was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interrogation. Of the 3,500 people incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940 and 1944, 1,733 died. Around 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.

Subject/Index Terms:
Belgium (Europe)
Breendonk internment camp (Belgium)
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
Police and security forces, Belgium
collaboration in the Holocaust
Mechelen (Belgium: transit camp)
Warning signs, transit camps
Belgium (1939-1945)
French, language
German, language
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.35.05, Outside view of Fort van Breendonk, contemporary photograph, BelgiumAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

A contemporary photograph of Fort van Breendonk, used as a prison and transit camp during WWII, now a memorial site. Belgium, post-WWII.

No camps expressly for detaining Jews were built in Belgium during the war, however, many were imprisoned alongside captured members of the resistance and political dissidents at Fort Breendonk, near Mechelen.

Soon after the German invasion, the Belgian fort was requisitioned by the Nazis and used for detainment and interrogation. Of the 3,500 people incarcerated in Breendonk between 1940 and 1944, 1,733 died. Around 300 people were killed in the camp itself, with at least 98 of them dying from deprivation or torture.

Subject/Index Terms:
Breendonk internment camp (Belgium)
Belgium (Europe)
German-occupied Belgium
Contemporary commemoration of the Holocaust
Holocaust museums
Holocaust Memorialization
Photographs, postwar, 1945 -- 1988
Belgium (1945--Present)
Creators:
Breendonk Memorial Museum (1947)
Sub-Collection 36: RG-23.36, Ukraine, circa 1939-1944Add to your cart.

Formerly a republic in the southwestern Soviet Union, and today an independent country. In 1920 most of the Ukraine was incorporated by the Soviet Union, while portions of the western Ukraine were annexed to Poland and Romania. On the even of World War II, there were 1.5 million Jews living in the Soviet Ukraine.

When war broke out in September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed the western (Polish) Ukraine, according to the terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact. In June 1940 the Soviet Union also took control of Bukovina and Bessarabia and annexed them to the Soviet Ukraine.

Initially, some western Ukrainians, who had only joined the Soviet Union in 1939 under pressure, hailed the Germans as liberators. But brutal German rule in the occupied territories eventually turned its supporters against them. Nazi administrators of conquered Soviet territories made little attempt to exploit the dissatisfaction of Ukraine with Stalinist political and economic policies. Instead, the Nazis preserved the collective-farm system, systematically carried out genocidal policies against Jews, deported men to work in forced labour camps in Germany, and began a systematic depopulation of Ukraine (along with Poland) to prepare it for German colonisation. They blockaded the transport of food on the Kiev River.

Subject/Index Terms:
Ukraine (Europe)
Prisoners digging their own grave
Storov (Ukraine)
Nazi war propaganda
District Galizien (Eastern Galicia), German administrative unit of occupied Poland
Schutzstaffel (SS)
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.36.01, Jews digging mass grave before their execution, Storov, Ukraine, July 1941, July 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jews dig mass grave before their execution, Storov, Ukraine, Juily 1941. German Federal Archives.
Subject/Index Terms:
Prisoners digging their own grave
Ukraine (Europe)
Storov (Ukraine)
Ukraine (1941-1945)
collaboration in the Holocaust
Nazi-perpetuated mass shootings
Mass executions
Photographs, Nazi-perpetrated massacres and atrocities
Nazi-German atrocities
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Holocaust, Ukrainian
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.36.02, Formation of the SS Galizien division 1943, Kolomyja, Galicia, 1943Add to your cart.
Formation of the SS Galizien division 1943, Kolomyja, Galicia
Subject/Index Terms:
District Galizien (Eastern Galicia), German administrative unit of occupied Poland
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.36.03, Galician volunteers to the 14 Waffen SS Division marching on Kosciuszko street in Sanok, May 1943, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Galician volunteers to the 14 Waffen SS Division marching on Kosciuszko street in Sanok, May 1943, public domain.
Subject/Index Terms:
Galician volunteers
Sanok County (Poland)
Photographs, Second World War
Poland (1939 --1945)
The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS, Galizien (1st Ukrainian Division)
Eastern Galicia (Ukraine: Region)
collaboration in the Holocaust
Ukrainian - Polish relations in the Second World War, 1939 -- 1945
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.36.04, Hans Frank, Left, Governor-General of the Generalgouvemement<i style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 13px; line-height: 19.200000762939453px;">,</i> Sanok, May 1943, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Hans Frank, Left, General Governor of the Generalgouvernement, Sanok, May 1943, public domain.
Subject/Index Terms:
Hans Frank (Governor-General)
Sanok County (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Generalgouvernement
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
Photographs, German-occupied Poland
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.36.05, Poster calling for volunteers, circa 1941-1943Add to your cart.
A poster calling for volunteers against the Soviets.
Subject/Index Terms:
Galician volunteers
Nazi war propaganda
Nazi war propaganda for the military and German people
Creators:
German Military Publications (1939-1940)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.36.06, Poster in German and Ukrainian appealing to join  the Galizien Division, Sanok, Western Galicia, Poland, May 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Poster in German and Ukrainian appealing to join  the Galizien Division, (The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Ukrainian) Sanok, Western Galicia, Poland.
Subject/Index Terms:
Galician volunteers
Sanok County (Poland)
collaboration in the Holocaust
The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS, Galizien (1st Ukrainian Division)
Poland (1939--1945)
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Creators:
German Military Publications (1939-1940)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.36.07, Map showing Ukraine under Reichskommissariat control and the boundaries of Generalbezirke and Kreisgebiete as of September 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Administrative map showing Ukraine under Reichskommissariat control, the civillian occupatinon regime. Shows the boundaries of Generalbezirke and Kreisgebiete as of September 1943
Subject/Index Terms:
Reichkommissariat Ukraine map
Reichskommissariat Ukraine (RKU)
Maps and border lines
Koch, Erich, German Reichskommissariat of Ukraine
Ukraine (1941-1945)
Creators:
Wikimedia Commons
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.36.08, Shooting of women and children from the Mizocz ghetto, October 1942, Poland (now Ukraine), October 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Shooting of women and children from the Mizocz ghetto in Poland (now Ukraine), October 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
collaboration in the Holocaust
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Nazi-perpetrated massacres and atrocities
Mizocz (Poland: ghetto)
Mizoch (Ukraine)
Mass killing of Jewish population, Second World War
Nazi-perpetuated mass shootings
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.36.09, SS Galizien division, 1943Add to your cart.
SS Galizien division.
Subject/Index Terms:
District Galizien (Eastern Galicia), German administrative unit of occupied Poland
SS and administrative personnel, German
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 10: RG-23.36.10, Ukrainian newspaper Wolyn, Kiev liberated, September 30, 1941Add to your cart.
Ukrainian newspaper Wolyn, announces the liberation of Kiev by the Germans.
Subject/Index Terms:
Volyn (Kiev)
Liberation from German-occupation
Creators:
Ukrainian newspaper (circa 1933-1945)
Sub-Collection 37: RG-23.37, Vilna ghetto, circa September 1941- September 1943Add to your cart.
On 22 June 1941, the Germans launched Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union. Vilnius was captured on 24 June. Two ghettos were set up in the old town centre for the large Jewish population – the smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October. The larger ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly deported in roundups known as "Aktionen". A failed ghetto uprising on 1 September 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in German-occupied Europe), was followed by the final destruction of the ghetto. During the Holocaust, about 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish population of Lithuania was murdered by the German units and Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, many of them in Paneriai, about 10 km (6.2 mi) west of the old town centre.
Subject/Index Terms:
Vilna ghetto
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.37.01, The entrance to the Vilna ghetto, 1941-1943, Lithuania, 1941-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

The entrance to the Vilna ghetto. This photograph show guards around the entrance and a waerning sign.

On 22 June 1941, the Germans launched Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union. Vilnius was captured on 24 June. Two ghettos were set up in the old town centre for the large Jewish population – the smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October. The larger ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly deported in roundups known as "Aktionen". A failed ghetto uprising on 1 September 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in German-occupied Europe), was followed by the final destruction of the ghetto. During the Holocaust, about 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish population of Lithuania was murdered by the German units and Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, many of them in Paneriai, about 10 km (6.2 mi) west of the old town centre.

Subject/Index Terms:
Vilna ghetto
Photographs, ghettos
Lithuania (1939-1945)
Auxiliary police forces, non-German, Second World War
Reichskommissariat Ostland, Nazi-German occupied Baltic states
Collaboration in ghettos
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 38: RG-23.38, Nordhausen, circa 1943-1945Add to your cart.

The Dora-Mittelbau (also known as Dora-Nordhausen or Nordhausen) camp was established in central Germany near the southern Harz Mountains, north of the town of Nordhausen. It was originally a subcamp of Buchenwald. Prisoners from Buchenwald were sent to the area in 1943 to begin construction of a large industrial complex. In October 1944, the SS made Dora-Mittelbau an independent concentration camp with more than 30 subcamps of its own.

Allied air raids on industrial complexes in Germany necessitated the construction of underground production facilities. Concentration camp prisoners dug huge tunnels into the surrounding mountains to house the production and storage areas. In 1943, prisoners at Dora-Mittelbau began construction of large underground factories and development facilities for the V-2 missile program and other experimental weapons. These so-called Weapons of Retaliation (Vergeltungswaffen), as the Germans called them, were constructed and stored in the underground facilities and bomb-proof shafts.

Until the spring of 1944, prisoners were kept mostly underground, deprived of daylight and fresh air, and enclosed in unstable tunnels. The mortality rate was higher than at most other concentration camps. Prisoners too weak or ill to work were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau or Mauthausen to be killed. In 1944, a compound to house forced laborers was built above ground level south of the main factory area. Once full production of the missiles began in the fall of 1944, Dora-Mittelbau had a standing prisoner population of at least 12,000.

Dora-Mittelbau was enclosed by an electrified barbed-wire fence, with the main entrance located in the east of the camp. To the west of the main entrance was the roll call area, where prisoners were assembled before they were marched off to forced labor. To the east, beyond the entrance, was the SS camp. The crematoria were located in the north of the camp. The camp prison was in the south part of the camp.

DORA-MITTELBAU SUBCAMPS

The Dora-Mittelbau camp was the center of a vast network of forced-labor camps constructed in 1944-1945 throughout the Harz Mountain region, including those located in nearby Niedersachswerfen, Nordhausen, and Neusollstedt. Prisoners in the Dora-Mittelbau camp system quarried stone and worked in construction projects, munitions factories, the nearby ammonia works, and other projects related to weapons development and production.

Dora-Mittelbau had a prisoner resistance organization, which sought mainly to delay production of the Weapons of Retaliation and to sabotage the rockets that were produced. Prisoners suspected of sabotage were usually killed; more than 200 were publicly hanged for sabotaging production.

THE LIBERATION OF DORA-MITTELBAU

In early April 1945, the Nazis began to evacuate the prisoners from Dora-Mittelbau. Within days, most of the remaining prisoners were sent to Bergen-Belsen in northern Germany. Thousands were killed during death marches under horrendous conditions. When American forces liberated Dora-Mittelbau in April 1945, only a few prisoners were still in the camp.

(Holocaust Encyclopedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
German civilians digging mass graves for concentration camp victims
Nordhausen (Concentration camp)
Dora-Nordhausen (Concentration camp)
Creators:
United States. Army. Signal Corps
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.38.01, After liberation, under American supervision, German civilians dig mass graves for the dead Jewish inmates of Nordhausen, Germany, ca 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
German citizens of Nordhausen forced to dig mass graves for the dead at Nordhausen post-liberation. American troops oversaw the German grave digging.
Subject/Index Terms:
Civilians, German
German civilians digging mass graves for concentration camp victims
Dora-Nordhausen (Concentration camp)
Nordhausen (Concentration camp)
Nordhausen (Germany)
Allied forces, American
Armed Forces, Allied
Creators:
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.38.02, Nordhausen concentration camp, aftermath of liberation by  Americans, Germany 1945, 1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Bodies are lined up along the street at Nordhausen concentration camp, Germany, ca 1945. Many inmates were killed by allied bombing at Nordhausen.
Subject/Index Terms:
Nordhausen (Concentration camp)
Dora-Nordhausen (Concentration camp)
Prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps, postliberation conditions
Aftermath of liberation
Nordhausen (Germany)
Photographs, concentration camps
Photographs, concentration camps post-liberation
Allied forces, American
Mass killing of Jewish population, Second World War
Creators:
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Allied Military Personnel
Sub-Collection 39: RG-23.39, Munich Accord, circa 1938-1939, 2010Add to your cart.

The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of Czechoslovakia's areas along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without the presence of Czechoslovakia. Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany. The agreement was signed in the early hours of 30 September 1938 (but dated 29 September). The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland in the face of ethnic demands made by Adolf Hitler. The agreement was signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy. Sudetenland was of immense strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were situated there, and many of its banks and heavy industry were located there as well.

Because the state of Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference, it felt betrayed by the United Kingdom and France, so Czechs and Slovaks call the Munich Agreement the Munich Dictate (Czech: Mnichovský diktát; Slovak: Mníchovský diktát). The phrase Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) is also used because the military alliance Czechoslovakia had with France proved useless. Today the document is typically referred to simply as the Munich Pact (Mnichovská dohoda).

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Munich Conference, September 1938
Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938)
German annexation of Sudetenland (October 1, 1938)
Nazi salute
Cheb (Czech Republic)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Germany Military Command (May, 1945)
Wikimedia Commons
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.39.01, Before signing the Munich Agreement, from left to right, Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, Ciano, Germany, September 1938, September 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The leaders who were present at the Munich conference are photographed here before signing the Munich Agreement, from left to right, Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, Ciano, German Federal Archive
Subject/Index Terms:
Chamberlain, Neville (British Prime Minister)
Daladier, Edouard (French President)
Adolf Hitler, dictator and German Chancellor and President
Mussolini, Benito (Italian "Il Duce")
Hitler and Mussolini 1935-1939
Ciano, Galeazzo (Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs)
Munich Conference, September 1938
Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938)
Munich (Germany)
Germany (1933 -- 1939)
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Creators:
German Governmental officials, 1933-1938 (1933-1938)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.39.02, Crowds of Sudeten Germans to greet the entering German troops, October 13, 1938, October 13, 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Crowds of Sudeten Germans to greet the entering German troops, October 13, 1938, Illustrierter Beobachter
Subject/Index Terms:
Nazi salute
German annexation of Sudetenland (October 1, 1938)
Photographs, Hitler and responses to Hitler
Munich Conference, September 1938
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Nazi Rally
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Creators:
Illustrierter Beobachter (German Nazi Party Publication) (1926-1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.39.03, Hitler is greeted by Sudetenland Germans in Cheb, Czechoslovakia, October 1939, October 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Hitler is greeted by Sudetenland Germans in Cheb, Czechoslovakia, October 1939.
Subject/Index Terms:
Adolf Hitler, dictator and German Chancellor and President
German annexation of Sudetenland (October 1, 1938)
Cheb (Czech Republic)
Nazi salute
Czechoslovakia (1939 -- 1945)
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Photographs, Hitler and responses to Hitler
Photographs, Germany in the Sudetenland
Creators:
A German photographer (1940 -- 1944)
Czechoslovakian photographer, 1938-1945 (1938-1945)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.39.04, Map of Post-Munich Agreement Europe in 1938, 2010Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A map of Post-Munich Agreeemt (29 September 1938) Europe.
Subject/Index Terms:
Map, Post-Munich Europe
Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938)
Europe (1939 -- 1945)
Maps and border lines
Creators:
Wikimedia Commons
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.39.05, Explanation of the map of post-Munich Agreement Europe, 2010Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An explanation of the post-Munich agreement map of Europe in 23.39.04
Subject/Index Terms:
Map, Post-Munich Europe
Explanations, maps
Maps and border lines
Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938)
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Creators:
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.39.06, Text of the Munich Pact between Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy, 29 September 1938, 29 September 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An American translation of the agreementconcluded at Munich on September 29, 1938 between Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy.
Subject/Index Terms:
Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938)
Munich Conference, September 1938
Adolf Hitler, dictator and German Chancellor and President
Chamberlain, Neville (British Prime Minister)
Daladier, Edouard (French President)
Mussolini, Benito (Italian "Il Duce")
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Munich (Germany)
Germany (1933 -- 1945)
Europe (1933-1945)
Creators:
Libraries and Museums, Public Domain
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.39.07, NSDAP-Parole der Woche, a weekly Nazi propaganda poster,  zum Sudetenland, this poster is about the Sudetenland, September 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Am "Official newspaper of the NSDAP, 'The News of the Week.' " A weekly Nazi propaganda poster. This poster discusses the annexation of the Sudetenland as a result of the Munich Agreement.
Subject/Index Terms:
German annexation of Sudetenland (October 1, 1938)
NSDAP and Nazi Germany, party and government officials
Nazi Propaganda
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938)
Parole der Woche, weekly Nazi propaganda poster
Creators:
German Military Publications (1939-1940)
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.39.08, Women of Cheb, Sudetenland salute entering German troops, October 1938, October 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Women of Cheb, Sudetenland salute entering German troops. One woman holds a hankerchief to her face to stop tears.
Subject/Index Terms:
German annexation of Sudetenland (October 1, 1938)
Cheb (Czech Republic)
Nazi salute
Popular responses to German annexation of Sudetenland, Cheb
Collaboration with Nazi Germany in the Second World War
Photographs, Germany in the Sudetenland
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Cheb (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovakia (1918 -- 1938 )
Creators:
NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party (1933 -- 1945)
Czechoslovakian photographer, 1938-1945 (1938-1945)
Sub-Collection 40: RG-23.40, Varian Fry, circa 1940-1967Add to your cart.

Greatly disturbed by what he saw, he helped raise money to support European anti-Nazi movements. Following the occupation of France in August 1940, he went to Marseille as an agent of the newly formed Emergency Rescue Committee in an effort to help persons wishing to flee the Nazis. Fry had $3,000 and a short list of refugees under imminent threat of arrest by agents of the Gestapo. Clamoring at his door came anti-Nazi writers, avant-garde artists, musicians and hundreds of others desperately seeking any chance to escape France.

Some later confessed they thought it a miracle that a white American Protestant would risk everything to help them.

Beginning in 1940, in Marseille, despite the watchful eye of the collaborationist Vichy regime, he and a small group of volunteers hid people at the Villa Air-Bel until they could be smuggled out. More than 2,200 people were taken across the border to Spain and then to the safety of neutral Portugal from which they made their way to the United States.

Others he helped escape on ships leaving Marseille for the French colony of Martinique, from which they too could go to the United States. Among Fry's closest associates were Americans Miriam Davenport, a former art student at the Sorbonne, and the heiress Mary Jayne Gold, a lover of the arts and the "good life" who had come to Paris in the early 1930s.

When the Nazis seized France in 1940, Gold went to Marseille, where she worked with Fry and helped finance his operation. Also working with Fry was a young academic named Albert O. Hirschman, who eventually went on to a distinguished career in America.

Especially instrumental in getting Fry the visas he needed for the artists, intellectuals and political dissidents on his list was Hiram Bingham IV, an American Vice Consul in Marseille who fought against State Department anti-Semitism and was personally responsible for issuing thousands of visas, both legal and illegal.

From his isolated position in Marseille, Varian Fry relied on the Unitarian Service Committee in Lisbon to help the refugees he sent. This office, staffed by American Unitarians under the direction of Robert Dexter, helped refugees to wait in safety for visas and other necessary papers, and to gain ship passage from Lisbon.

In 1942, the Emergency Rescue Committee and the American branch of the European-based International Relief Association joined forces under the name the International Relief and Rescue Committee, which was later shortened to the International Rescue Committee (IRC). The IRC is a leading nonsectarian, nongovernmental international relief and development organization that still operates today.

Back home in the United States, Fry published his book in 1945 about his time in France under the title Surrender on Demand. In 1968, the US publisher Scholastic (which markets mainly to children and adolescents) published a paperback edition under the title Assignment: Rescue, and subsequent reprints have appeared under both of the above titles.

He wrote and spoke critically against U.S. immigration policies particularly relating to the issue of the fate of Jews in Europe. In a December 1942 issue of The New Republic, he wrote a scathing article titled: "The Massacre of Jews in Europe".

Although by 1942 Fry had been terminated from his position at the Emergency Rescue Committee, American private rescuers acknowledged that his program in France had been uniquely effective, and recruited Fry in 1944 to provide behind-the-scenes guidance to the Roosevelt administration's late-breaking rescue program, the War Refugee Board.

(Source: Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Fry, Varian (American journalist)
Vichy France
American Consulate
Temporary visas
Creators:
Varian Fry (1907-1967)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.40.01, A letter from Varian Fry to the American Embassy in Vichey, France, requesting an exit visa for Walter Keyarhof, 1940, 17 December 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A letter to the American consul in Vichy, France asking for support to a "Mr. Walter Keyerhof" for an exit visa to the United States.
Subject/Index Terms:
Aid and rescue during the war
Non-Jewish assistance of Jews
Fry, Varian (American journalist)
Righteous Among the Nations
France (1940 -- 1945)
Vichey (France)
American Consulate in Vichy, France
Requests for exit visas from France, 1940-1945
Requests for help in the course of the Second World War
Creators:
Fry, Varian (1907-1967)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.40.02, Advertisement about lecture series by Fry about the war and France, English, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Advertisement about lecture series to be given by Varian Fry on the the war and France.
Subject/Index Terms:
Fry, Varian (American journalist)
Holocaust awareness during WWII
Foreign Diplomats, Americans
Vichey (France)
France (1940 -- 1945)
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Aid and rescue during the war
Non-Jewish assistance of Jews
Creators:
Fry, Varian (1907-1967)
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) (1978--)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.40.03, Varian Fry walking the street in Marseilles, France, ca 1940, ca 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Varian Fry walking down the streets in Marseilles, France. ca 1940
Subject/Index Terms:
Fry, Varian (American journalist)
Marseilles (France)
France (1940 -- 1945)
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Non-Jewish assistance of Jews
Foreign Diplomats, American
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 41: RG-23.41, Warsaw Ghetto forced posing, circa 1940-1943Add to your cart.
A photocollection of women in the Warsaw ghetto being forced to strip and smile for the cameras.
Subject/Index Terms:
Warsaw ghetto
Forced stripping
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.41.01, Shirtless woman surrounded by Nazi soldiers, Warsaw Ghetto, 1940-1943, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A woman without a top, surrounded by soldiers.
Subject/Index Terms:
Forced stripping
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, ghettos
German Soldiers
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.41.02, A soldier forcing a woman to strip, Warsaw Ghetto, 1940-1943, circa 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A soldier forcing a woman to strip in the Warsaw Ghetto. Other women are sitting behind her. 1940-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Forced stripping
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, ghettos
German Soldiers
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.41.03, A shirtless woman sitting on the street in the Warsaw ghetto, removing or putting on her socks, 1940-1943, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A shirtless woman sitting on the ground on the street in the Warsaw ghetto, removing or putting on her socks. 1940-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Forced stripping
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939 --1945)
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.41.04, A woman standing on the street, topless, smiling for the camera, Warsaw Ghetto, 1940-1943, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The same woman from photograph RG-23.41.03, smiling for the cameras while topless. A German guard stands in the background.
Subject/Index Terms:
Forced stripping
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939 --1945)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.41.05, A woman in the streets of the Warsaw ghetto, either undressing or re-dressing, as German soldiers stand in the background, 1940-1943, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A woman in standing in her underclothes in the streets of the Warsaw ghetto, either undressing or re-dressing. German soldiers stand in the background. 1940-1943
Subject/Index Terms:
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced stripping
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939 --1945)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.41.06, A  German soldier forcing a woman to strip in the street, Warsaw ghetto, 1940-1943, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A German soldier stands in the street as a woman is undressing in the Warsaw ghetto. 1940-1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced stripping
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939 --1945)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.41.07, Two soldiers forcing two women to strip in the Warsaw ghetto, 1940-1945, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Two soldiers watch while two women are forced to strip on the streets of the Warsaw ghetto, 1940-1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced stripping
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939 --1945)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.41.08, Shirtless woman in the streets of the Warsaw ghetto, a soldier stands behind her, 1940-1943, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A woman standing in the street without a top as a German soldier stands behind her.
Subject/Index Terms:
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced stripping
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939 --1945)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Warsaw (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.41.09, Warsaw Ghetto, Forced stripping, Consolidated, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Forced stripping in the Warsaw ghetto. A consolidated photocollection.
Subject/Index Terms:
Female nudity, Warsaw Ghetto
Forced stripping
Forced undressing, Warsaw Ghetto
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
German Soldiers
Photographs, ghettos
Photographs, Warsaw Ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Treatment of women in ghettos, 1940-1945
Warsaw (Poland: ghetto)
Warsaw (Poland)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 42: RG-23.42, Belzec, circa 1942-1943Add to your cart.

Belzec was an extermination camp located in the Lublin disctrict of Southeasterm Poland, along the Belzec railway line. The Nazis began building Belzec in November 1941 as a result of the Aktion Reinhard, the Nazi plan to exterminate the two million Jews in the General Government. Altogether, 600,000 people, mostly Jews and a few hundred gypsies, were murdered at Belzec.

(The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust)

Subject/Index Terms:
Belzec extermination camp (Lublin, Poland)
SS and administrative personnel, German
Ukrainian military personnel
Creators:
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.42.01, Belzec death camp, SS and Ukrainian guards posing at the camp, Poland, 1942, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The Belzec death camp's SS and Ukrainian guards posing at the camp, Poland, 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
SS and administrative personnel, German
Ukrainian military personnel
Belzec extermination camp (Lublin, Poland)
Poland (1939 --1945)
Photographs, concentration camps
Concentration camp soldiers and officials
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Creators:
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 43: RG-23.43, Drancy, circa 1941-1944Add to your cart.

The Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German military administration of Occupied France during World War II. It was located in Drancy, a northeastern suburb of Paris, France. Between June 22, 1942, and July 31, 1944, during its use as an internment camp, 67,400 French, Polish, and German Jews were deported from the camp in 64 rail transports, which included 6,000 children. Only 1,542 remained alive at the camp when Allied forces liberated it on 17 August 1944.

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Drancy internment camp (Paris, France)
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.43.01, Photograph of Drancy transit camp, near Paris, 1941-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Drancy transit camp near Paris.
Subject/Index Terms:
Drancy internment camp (Paris, France)
France (1940--1945)
Transit camps, Europe
Paris (France)
Photographs, transit camps
Brunner, Alois, SS commandant of Drancy transit camp, France
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Libraries and Museums, Public Domain
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.43.02, People standing in Drancy transit camp, France, 1941-1944, 1941-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
People standing in Drancy transit campt, France, 1941-1944
Subject/Index Terms:
Drancy internment camp (Paris, France)
France (1940 -- 1945)
Transit camps, Europe
Paris (France)
Photographs, transit camps
Brunner, Alois, SS commandant of Drancy transit camp, France
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 44: RG-23.44, Drohobycz, circa 1900- 1945Add to your cart.

Drohobych Ghetto or Drohobycz Ghetto was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland after the Nazi takeover of the region in Operation Barbarossa. The ghetto was liquidated in February, August, October and November 1942, when all Jews of Drohobycz were transported in Holocaust trains to the Belzec extermination camp.

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Drohobych, Ukraine
Shulz, Bruno (Artist)
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Deportation scenes
Rynek Square (Poland)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Shulz, Bruno (1892-1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.44.01, Bruno Schulz, self-portrait, painting, 1919, 1919Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

This is a sel-portrait painted by Bruno Schulz in 1919.

Bruno Schulz (July 12, 1892 – November 19, 1942) was a Polish writer, fine artist, literary critic and art teacher born to Jewish parents, and regarded as one of the great Polish-language prose stylists of the 20th century. Schulz was born in Drohobych, in the Austrian sector of the Partitioned Poland, and spent most of his life there. He was killed by a German Nazi officer.

Subject/Index Terms:
Shulz, Bruno (Artist)
Holocaust-related art
Drohobych, Ukraine
Art, pre-Second World War
Art, self-portraits
Creators:
Shulz, Bruno (1892-1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.44.02, Portrait of Bruno Schulz, 1930s, 1930sAdd to your cart.

A portrait of Bruno Schulz from the 1930s.

Bruno Schulz (July 12, 1892 – November 19, 1942) was a Polish writer, fine artist, literary critic and art teacher born to Jewish parents, and regarded as one of the great Polish-language prose stylists of the 20th century. Schulz was born in Drohobych, in the Austrian sector of the Partitioned Poland, and spent most of his life there. He was killed by a German Nazi officer.

Subject/Index Terms:
Shulz, Bruno (Artist)
Photographs
Photographs, pre-Second World War
Drohobych, Ukraine
Creators:
Shulz, Bruno (1892-1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.44.03, Deportation of Drohobycz Jews, 1942, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Drohobycz Jews rounded up for deportation.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation scenes
Drohobych, Ukraine
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Photographs, ghettos
Drohobych (Ukraine: Ghetto)
Drohobycz (Poland)
Deportations from ghettos
Photographs, transports and deportations
Poland (1939--1945)
Ukraine (1939-1945)
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.44.04, Drohobycz, Rynek Square, ca. 1900, circa 1900Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A postcard of Rynek Square in Drohobycz before Nazi-German takeovers.
Subject/Index Terms:
Rynek Square (Poland)
Drohobych, Ukraine
Prewar photographs
Photographs, pre-Second World War
Poland (1900--1914)
Creators:
Secondary publications (1940 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 45: RG-23.45, Einsatzgruppen, 1941Add to your cart.

<span lang="EN" style="color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN;">Einsatzgruppen, a German term, meaning "action-groups," that originally referred to Nazi police intelligence units that worked with the German army after the invasion of Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. Later, the term referred to mobile SS killing units that traveled with the German forces that invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. <o:p></o:p></span>

<span lang="EN" style="color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN;">When the Germans invaded Austria in March 1938 and Czechoslovakia in March 1939, the job of the Einsatzgruppen was to follow the advancing military, and act as portable offices of the Nazis' Security Service and Security Police until permanent offices could be set up. The Einsatzgruppen were in charge of security in these regions, which meant finding and imprisoning opponents of the Nazis. <o:p></o:p></span>

<span lang="EN" style="color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN;">The Einsatzgruppen killed their victims- men, women, and children- by gathering them in ravines, mines, quarries, ditches, or pits dug specifically for this purpose. First they would force Jews to hand over their possessions and remove their clothing. Then they would shoot them, and throw their bodies into a ditch. The commanders filed daily reports of their murderous activities. <o:p></o:p></span>

<span lang="EN" style="color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN;">The constant up-close contact with murder had a terribly destructive effect on the Einsatzgruppen members, despite the large amounts of alcohol they were plied with. This led the Nazis to search for another method of execution. Soon the Einsatzgruppen were given gas vans for the murder of the remaining Jews. <o:p></o:p></span>

<font color="#000000" face="Times New Roman" size="3"><span style="display: none;"> </span></font>

The Einsatzgruppen killed their victims- men, women, and children- by gathering them in ravines, mines, quarries, ditches, or pits dug specifically for this purpose. First they would force Jews to hand over their possessions and remove their clothing. They they would shoot them, and throw their bodies into a ditch. The commanders filed daily reports of their murderous activities.

The constant up-close contact with murder had a terribly destructive effect on the Einsatzgruppen members, despite the large amounts of alcohol they were plied with. This led the Nazis to search for another method of execution. Soon the Einsatgruppen were given gas vans for the murder of the remaining Jews.

Subject/Index Terms:
Einsatzgruppen (Nazi police intelligence units "action-groups")
Execution of Jews
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Nazi atrocities
Lubny (Poltava oblast, Ukraine)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.45.01, Einsatzgruppen German aiming a gun at a mother holding her child, 1941, 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A German military official is pointing a gun at a woman and her child.
Subject/Index Terms:
Einsatzgruppen (Nazi police intelligence units "action-groups")
Nazi-perpetrated massacres
Nazi atrocities
Execution of Jews
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.45.02, Jews from Lubny in Ukraine, October 1941, October 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jews from Lubny in Ukraine are sitting down in a field.
Subject/Index Terms:
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Roll Call
Nazi atrocities
Lubny (Poltava oblast, Ukraine)
Ukraine (1939-1945)
Photographs, roundups
Photographs, Second World War
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 46: RG-23.46, False identity, 1943Add to your cart.
A collection of false identity.
Subject/Index Terms:
False identity
False change of address
Creators:
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
German police authorities of Lviv (October 1943)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.46.01, A police residence registration form for Fanny Tennenbaum and her mother who assumed false identity in Zimna-Woda, 1943., 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A false change of name made near Lwow at Zimna Woda. A false change of name on a registration form for Fanny Tennenbaum under the name of Franciszka Wieczorkowska, near Lwow.
Subject/Index Terms:
False identity
False change of address
Lwow (Poland)
survival tactics
Means of survival, not in ghettos or concentration camps
Poland (1939 --1945)
Protective papers
Zimna Woda (Poland)
Zimnia Voda (Ukraine)
False identity papers
Creators:
German police authorities of Lviv (October 1943)
German police and security forces, occupied territories (September 1939--1945)
Sub-Collection 47: RG-23.47, Galicia, 1939-1942Add to your cart.
A collection of announcements, appeals, ordinances, and orders to the Jewish residents of Galicia.
Subject/Index Terms:
Lwow (Poland)
Judenrat, Jewish council in ghettos
Official announcement of ghetto establishment
Official announcement of German Protectorate
Lwow, Lemberg, Lvov, Lviv, variants of this city name in history, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Austria
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Nazi-German official)
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District Galicia from August 1941--January 1942)
Creators:
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District of Galicia) (August 1941-- September 1942)
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Wachter, Otto, Dr. (Governor of the District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia) (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.47.01, To the population of Lwow county September 1941, German, Ukrainian, Polish, September 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Announcement to the population of Lwow county form the head of city administration Bauer. It was part of the new administrative division in September of 1941. Bundesarchiv Plak
Subject/Index Terms:
Official announcement of German Protectorate
Lwow (Poland)
Lwow, Lemberg, Lvov, Lviv, variants of this city name in history, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Austria
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Poland (1939--1945)
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Creators:
Wachter, Otto, Dr. (Governor of the District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia) (1939-1945)
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District of Galicia) (August 1941-- September 1942)
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.47.02, Decree to establish Judenrat, October 1941, October 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
An ordinance to establish a Judenrat.
Subject/Index Terms:
German military and civil administration
German police and security forces, Poland
Judenrat, Jewish council in ghettos
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
Eastern Galicia (Ukraine: Region)
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Poland (1939--1945)
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Decree for the creation of Judenrat
Creators:
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Wachter, Otto, Dr. (Governor of the District of Cracow and later Governor of Eastern Galicia) (1939-1945)
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District of Galicia) (August 1941-- September 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.47.03, Ordinance by Governor of Eastern Galicia Dr. Lasch for the city of Lemberg, November 1941, Polish, German, Ukrainian, November 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Ordinance for Governor of Eastern Galicia, Dr. Lasch for the city of Lemberg.
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (1939-1945)
Lemberg (Poland: ghetto)
Lwow, Lemberg, Lvov, Lviv, variants of this city name in history, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Austria
Official announcement of German Protectorate
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Creators:
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District of Galicia) (August 1941-- September 1942)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.47.04, Order of curfew in Lemberg for Jews, non Jews and public establishments, August 1941. German, Polish, Ukrainian, August 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Order of curgew in Lemberg Poland for Jews, non-Jews and public establishments put in place in August of 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
Curfew notice for Jews
Hans Kujath, German administrator of Lwow (Lviv), 1941-1944
Lwow (Poland)
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Poland (1939--1945)
Orders of curfew for Jews, non-Jews and public establishments
Lviv (Ukraine)
German military and civil administration
German civil authorities of Lwow (Lviv), 1941-1944
Creators:
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
German authorities of Lwow (Lviv) (1941-1944)
Hans Kujath, German administrator of occupied Lwow (Lviv) (1941-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.47.05, Order for the Jewish population in Lwow in German, Ukrainian, Polish, April 1942, German, Polish, Ukrainian, April 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Order for the Jewish population in Lwow written in German, Ukrainian, and Polish.
Subject/Index Terms:
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Lwow (Poland)
Lwow, Lemberg, Lvov, Lviv, variants of this city name in history, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Austria
Nazi-German orders on Jewish residents
Poland (1939--1945)
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Creators:
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.47.06, Lemberg, Poland City Ordinance on the registration of alien residents, December 1941, Polish, German, Ukrainian, December 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
City Ordinance, Lemberg on the registration of alien residents, December 1941, Bundesarchiv, Plak 003-036-125, copyrighted
Subject/Index Terms:
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Lwow, Lemberg, Lvov, Lviv, variants of this city name in history, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Austria
Registration of alien residents
Poland (1939--1945)
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Creators:
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.47.07, Appeal to the rural population of Galicia in German, Ukrainian, Polish, August 1941, August 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Appeal to the rural population of Galicia in German, Ukrainian, Polish, August 1941, Bundesarchiv, Plak 003-036-121, copyrighted
Subject/Index Terms:
District Galizien (Eastern Galicia), German administrative unit of occupied Poland
German appeal to the rural population
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District Galicia from August 1941--January 1942)
Eastern Galicia (European region)
Creators:
Dr. Lasch, Karl (Governor of District of Galicia) (August 1941-- September 1942)
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.47.08, Appeal or Warning to German soldiers, Galicia, 1941, 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Appeal or Warning to German soldiers, Galicia, 1941, Bundesarchiv, Plak 003-036-124, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
District Galizien (Eastern Galicia), German administrative unit of occupied Poland
Poland (1939 --1945)
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Nazi-German warnings and appeals to German soldiers in Galicia
Eastern Galicia (Ukraine: Region)
German Soldiers
German authorities of District Galicia, 1941-1944
German regulations for German soldiers with regard to purchases from civilian populations in Galicia
Creators:
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
German authorities of District Galicia, 1941-1944 (1941-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 9: RG-23.47.09, Announcement in German, Ukrainian, Polish, Sanok in Lisko county, Poland, October 1939, October 1939Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Announcement in German, Ukrainian, Polish, Sanok in Lisko county, Poland, October 1939, Bundesarchiv, 003-036-107, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
Official announcement of German Protectorate
Orders, ordinances, announcements, German-occupied Poland
Poland (1939--1945)
Sanok (Poland)
anti-Jewish measures and legislations
German occupation of Poland
Germany invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
German police and security forces, Poland
German military and civil administration
Nazi-German announcements in occupied Poland, 1939-1945
Eastern Galicia (Poland: Region)
Eastern Galicia (Ukraine: Region)
Creators:
German civil authorities of the town of Sanok, Poland, 1939-1944 (1939-1944)
German occupation authorities (1939 -- 1945)
Sub-Collection 48: RG-23.48, Invasion of the Soviet Union, circa 1940--1942Add to your cart.

Following the rise to power, Germany and the Soviet Union behaved as mortal enemies. One month prior to the outbreak of World War II, however, the two countries surprised the world by signing a "non-aggression pact" (Nazi-Soviet Pact), in which they agreed to abstain from attacking each other. This pact allowed the Germans  free reign to invade Poland without Soviet intervention. In exchange, the Soviets were given the eastern parts of Poland and the Baltic countries of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.

In mid-1941 the Germans decided to betray their pact with the Soviets- they secretly planned to attack the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. In preparation for their invasion, the Nazis ordered the extermination of all Jews living in those areas annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939-1940. The Germans attacked on June 22, 1941. After the invasion, more than five million Jews came under Nazi rule- over half of Europe's Jewish population.

Subject/Index Terms:
Savicheva, Tania (Leningrad school-girl)
Photographs depicting Nazi crimes in Euroupe
Photographs
Diaries during the Holocaust
Operation Barbarossa
German Siege of Leningrad (Soviet Union)
Prisoners of war, Soviet
Creators:
Sanivecha, Tania (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.48.01, Explanation and translation of diary pages of of Tania Savicheva, a Leningrad school-girl, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Tania Savicheva a Leningrad school-girl makes notes of her family's death, largely due to starvation. Tania herself died at the end of 1942. This document describes the circumstances in Leningrad and translates the diary's notes of who died and when in  RG-23.48.02.
Subject/Index Terms:
Diaries during the Holocaust
personal diaries
Savicheva, Tania (Leningrad school-girl)
German Siege of Leningrad (Soviet Union)
German invasion of the USSR, 22 June 1941
Starvation in Leningrad, Soviet Union
Creators:
Sanivecha, Tania (1941--1944)
Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.48.02, Pages from the Diary of Tania Savicheva, noting the deaths of her family during the Siege of Leningrad, 1942, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Tania Savicheva and pages from her diary noting the deaths of her family members during the Siege of Leningrad (1942), in which hundreds of thousands civilians starved due to German blockades of goods and unequal rationing of food by Soviet authorities. Tania herself died at the end of 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Diaries during the Holocaust
personal diaries
German Siege of Leningrad (Soviet Union)
Savicheva, Tania (Leningrad school-girl)
Nazi atrocities
Starvation in Leningrad, Soviet Union
German invasion of the USSR, 22 June 1941
The USSR (1941--1945)
Leningrad (USSR)
Saint Petersburg (Russia)
death of family members
Creators:
Sanivecha, Tania (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.48.03, The first page of Operation Barbarossa, in German, 1940, 18 December 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The first page of Operation Barbarossa, outlining the necessity of a quick campaign to crush Russia and listing the goals of the army (Heer) and the airforce (Luftwaffle). Operation Barbarossa was proposed by Hitler to crush the USSR. It was a failure and marked a turning point in Germany's wartime success. Operation Barbarossa resulted in the most casualities of any WWII campaign.
Subject/Index Terms:
Operation Barbarossa
The USSR (1941--1945)
Soviet Union
German Armed Forces, Wehrmacht
Herr, German army
German invasion of the USSR, 22 June 1941
Creators:
Hitler, Adolf, dictator, German president and chancellor (1933-1945)
Wehrmacht (German Army) (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.48.04, Soviet prisoners of war captured near Minsk, 2 July 1941, 2 July 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Soviet prisoners of war captured near Minsk, July 2, 1941, German Federal Archive, Bild 146-1982-077-11
Subject/Index Terms:
Prisoners of war, Soviet
Minsk (Capital of Belarus)
German invasion of the USSR, 22 June 1941
Minsk (Soviet Union)
German Soldiers
The USSR (1941--1945)
Photographs, Second World War
Photographs, USSR
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Sub-Collection 49: RG-23.49, Janowska Camp, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.

Janowska was a labor camp located on Janowska Road in Lvov, where thousands of Jews were murdered.

The Germans established Janowska in September 1941 as an arms factory. Soon, it was expanded into a complex of factories that served the German Armament Works. These factories employed Jews as forced laborers. By October, there were 600 prisoners who worked mostly at carpentry and metalwork; some were given meaningless jobs designed to exhaust them before sending them to their deaths. At the beginning of November the Nazis asked the chairman of the Lvov Judenrat, Dr. Joseph Parnes, to provide more workers for the camp. He refused and was executed.

The camp underwent a change in March 1942. When the mass deportations of Jews from Eastern Galicia to the Belzec extermination camp began, Janowska was used as a transit camp for those prisoners who were still capable of doing hard labor. When they were no longer of any use to the Germans, they were sent to the Belize like the others.

Later in the spring, the Nazis expanded Janowska and turned it into a concentration camp. The Lvov Judenrat tried to help the prisoners there by sending them food, but hardly any of the packages reached them. During the summer of 1942, thousands more arrived.

In mid-1943 Janowska became more and more like an extermination camp. Fewer prisoners were used as forced laborers, and the amount of time they stayed in the camp was shortened. The Nazis executed prisoners on the outskirts of Lvov; over 6,000 Jews were murdered in May 1943 alone.

The prisoners in Janowska tried to organize resistance actions. Prisoners who worked outside Janowska were able to smuggle weapons into the camp, to be used in the event of the camp’s liquidation. However, the date of the liquidation was moved up to November 1943, catching the prisoner’s off guard. One revolt did break out among the prisoners forced to burn corpses to conceal evidence of mass extermination. The rebels killed some guards, but most were caught and killed. Altogether tens of thousands of Jews from Lvov and Eastern Galicia were murdered in Janowska.

Subject/Index Terms:
Janowska labor camp (Lvov, Ukraine)
Lwow, Lemberg, Lvov, Lviv, variants of this city name in history, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Austria
Lvov (Poland: ghetto)
Prisoners of the Janowska Concentration Camp and the Camp Orchestra
Forced stripping
Jewish personal belongings
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Allied Military Personnel
Army Signal Corps, United States Army
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.49.01, Bone-crushing machine used to grind human bones for fertilizer, Janowska concentration camp, post-liquidation, 1944, August 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A bone-crushing machine used to grind human bones for fertilizer at the Janowska concentration camp in Lwow Poland (now Lviv Ukraine).
Subject/Index Terms:
Bone-crushing machine
German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945
Lwow (Poland)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Janowska (Poland: Concentration Camp)
Soviet Extraordinary State Commission
Sonderaktion 1005, Janowska concentration camp
Creators:
Soviet Extraordinary State Commission (1942-1945)
Allied authorities, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.49.02, Orchestra in Janowska concentration camp Lwow (Lviv), 1941-1943, 1941-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

This photograph shows an orchestra formed from prisoners at Janowska concentration camp near Lvov being forced to play at the execution of a group of Russian prisoners. In the bottom-right-hand corner of the photograph is Hauptsturmfuhrer Warzock, the camp commandant. Janowska was a forced labour camp for Jews and also a transit camp for Polish Jews being sent to extermination camps.

The orchestra played when the inmates departed for work and on their return. The orchestra was establishe​d by the Germans who amused themselves by mocking and humiliatin​g the inmates.

Subject/Index Terms:
Prisoners of the Janowska Concentration Camp and the Camp Orchestra
Janowska (Poland: Concentration Camp)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Lwow (Poland)
Orchestras, concentration camps
Music in concentration camps
Poland (1939--1945)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.49.03, Prisoners of the Janowska Concentration Camp Orchestra, Lwow (Lviv), 1941-1943, 1941--1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Members of the camp orchestra perform in front of a barracks in the Janowska concentration camp. The Janowska orchestra included some of the leading Jewish musicians in Lvov, among them violinist Leonid S tricks and cellist Leon Eber. The SS forced the orchestra to perform during selections and actions and even "commissioned" a special composition to be played on these occasions. Entitled "Todestango" [Tango of Death], the piece was composed by Yakub Munt, former director of the Lvov opera. The music was based on an earlier work by Eduardo Bianco. The members of the orchestra met their end in 1943 when they were shot to death by their overseers while playing their instruments.
Subject/Index Terms:
Prisoners of the Janowska Concentration Camp and the Camp Orchestra
Lwow (Poland)
Orchestras, concentration camps
Janowska (Poland: Concentration Camp)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Music in concentration camps
Poland (1939--1945)
Creators:
German Military Photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.49.04, Shoes of victims of the Janowska concentration camp, Lwow (Lviv), found after liquidation, ca 1944, circa 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A collection of shoes, found after the liberation of the Janowska labor and concentration camp.
Subject/Index Terms:
Lwow (Poland)
Lviv (Ukraine)
Photographs, post-liquidation
Jewish personal belongings
Poland (1939--1945)
Janowska (Poland: Concentration Camp)
Confiscation of Jewish property without German authorization
Creators:
Allied authorities, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Soviet Extraordinary State Commission (1942-1945)
Sub-Collection 50: RG-23.50, Jasenovac concentration camp, 1941--1945Add to your cart.
Jasenovac was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia, located 62 miles south of Zagreb. Jasenovac, which was actually a network of several subcamps, was established in August 1941 and dissolved in April 1945. The Nazis gave control of Jasenovacto the puppet Croatian government, which was run by the fascist Ustasa movement. A large number of Ustasa members served in the camp, most notably Miroslav Filipovix-Majstorovic, who was notorious for killing prisoners with his bare hands.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Execution of Jews
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Childhood in concentration camps
Serbian prisoners
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.50.01, Ustasa soldier stands among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp, 1942, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Ustasa (Croatian fascist) guard stands amid corpses at the Jasenovac concentration camp, Yugoslavia, 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Jasenovac (Yugoslavia: Concentration Camp)
Serbian prisoners
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Photographs, concentration camps
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Croatia (1940-1945)
Mass executions
Mass murders, Serbians
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.50.02, Children from Kozare at the Jasenovac concentration camp, 1941-1945, circa 1941--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A group of children from Kozare are photographed at the Jasenovac concentration camp in Croatia, which at that time was called the Independent State of Croatia and was a Nazi puppet government.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Serbian prisoners
Croatia (1940-1945)
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Photographs, concentration camps
Children victims
Prisoners, children
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.50.03, Deportation to the Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia, ca.1942, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Deportation scene to the Jasenovac camp.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Serbian prisoners
Deportation scenes
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Croatia (1940-1945)
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Deportations to concentration camps
Deportation to Jasenovac concentration camp
Photographs, transports and deportations
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.50.04, Serbs interned in the Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia, 1941-1945, 1941--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Serbs interned in the Jasenovac concentration camp in Croatia. Jasenovac, Yugoslavia, between 1941 and 1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jasenovac (Yugoslavia: Concentration Camp)
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Serbian prisoners
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Photographs, concentration camps
Photographs, concentration camp prisoners
Croatia (1940-1945)
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.50.05, Ustasa guards sit at a table in front of prisoner's possessions, Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia, 1941-1945, 1941--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Ustasa (Croatian fascist) guards alongside belongings of prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp. Yugoslavia, between 1941 and 1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Personal belongings
Confiscation of personal belongings and property
Jasenovac (Yugoslavia: Concentration Camp)
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Croatia (1940-1945)
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Photographs, concentration camps
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.50.06, Ustasa guards search new prisoners at Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia, 1941-1945, 1941--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Ustasa (Croatian fascist) guards search prisoners and take their belongings upon arrival at Jasenovac concentration camp. Yugoslavia, between 1941 and 1945.
Subject/Index Terms:
Personal belongings
Serbian prisoners
Confiscation of personal belongings and property
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Jasenovac (Yugoslavia: Concentration Camp)
Photographs, concentration camps
Photographs, concentration camp prisoners
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Croatia (1940-1945)
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.50.07, Ustasa militia execute people near the Jasenovac concentration camp, Croatia, ca 1942, circa 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Ustasa (Croatian fascist) guards force a prisoner into a pit to be shot. Jasenovac concentration camp. Yugoslavia, probably 1942
Subject/Index Terms:
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Execution in concentration camps
Serbian prisoners
Jasenovac (Yugoslavia: Concentration Camp)
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Croatia (1940-1945)
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Photographs, executions
Photographs, concentration camps
Creators:
Ustasa Militia photographer (1941-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: RG-23.50.08, View of the Jasenovac concentration camp in Croatia, 1941-1942, 1941-1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Photograph of the outside of the Jasenovac concentration camp in Croatia. Jasenovac, Yugoslavia, 1941-1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jasenovac, Croatian Concentration camp
Ustasa Militia, Ustase Militia (Croatian fascist and terrorist group)
Jasenovac (Yugoslavia: Concentration Camp)
Yugoslavia (1941--1945)
Croatia (1940-1945)
Independent State of Croatia (NHD), 1941-1943
Photographs, concentration camps
Ustaše--Croatian Revolutionary Movement
Creators:
Archival documents of other repositories (1939 --1945)
Sub-Collection 51: RG-23.51, Jewish resistance, circa 1941--1945Add to your cart.
This collection mainly houses documents relating to the Jewish resistance within the ghettos
Subject/Index Terms:
Liebeskind, Dolek--Member of Jewish resistance in Cracow ghetto
Draenger, Shimshon-- Member of Jewish resistance in Cracow ghetto
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Jewish resistance
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Jewish Resistance Organization (Poland) (circa 1941--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.51.01, Dolek Liebeskind and Shimshon Draenger, members of the Jewish resistance in the Cracow ghetto, Poland, 1940-1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of Jewish resistance members Dolek Liebesking and Shimshon Draenger.
Subject/Index Terms:
Liebeskind, Dolek--Member of Jewish resistance in Cracow ghetto
Draenger, Shimshon-- Member of Jewish resistance in Cracow ghetto
Cracow (Poland: Ghetto)
Cracow (Poland)
Resistance, Jewish
Jewish resistance organization in Cracow ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Resistance members, Jewish
Photographs, Jewish resistance members
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Jewish resistance, photographers (1939-1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.51.02, Prisoner's inscrpitions on a wall of Cell No.2 in the Gestapo building at 2 Pomorska street, Cracow, Poland, 1941--1945Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Graffiti on the wall of Cell No. 2 in the Gestapo building at 2 Pomorska Street. Among some of the writing, some names may be distinguished: Roman Puchalski, Michael Weisbrod, Dyna Cz. and others.
Subject/Index Terms:
Gestapo (Nazi German Secret political police)
Poland (1939--1945)
Cracow (Poland)
Pomorska street, Gestapo prison in Cracow
Prison cells
Gestapo activities in Cracow, 1939-1945
Prison, German
Interrogation by Gestapo, Poland
Resistance members, Polish
Central Commission for Investigation of German Crimes in Poland, 1945-1949
German police and security forces, Poland
Creators:
Central Commission for Investigation of German Crimes in Poland (1945-1949)
Sub-Collection 53: RG-23.53, Kovno ghetto, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.

Kovno is a city in Lithuania. In 1939 about 40,000 Jews lived in Kovno. Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941; Kovno was occupied on June 24. Even before the Germans entered the city, antisemitic Lithuanians went on wild killing sprees directed against the Jews. When the Germans arrived, they took charge of the killings. Thousands of Jews were transferred to locations outside the city.

Soon, the Germans established a civilian administration, which issued a series of anti-Jewish decrees. The Jews were given one month to move into a ghetto. When the ghetto was closed off from the outside world in August 1941, it contained 29,670 Jews. The Germans staged a mass killing operation- the "big aktion" - on October 28, during which 9000 Jews were taken to the ninth fort and murdered. Life in the ghetto, including much cultural activity, was administered by the Judenraete under Dr. Elchanan Elkes.

Until March 1944, Relative quiet reigned in Kovno. However, the quiet was shattered on March 27, 1943 when 1800 babies, children, and old people were dragged out of their home and murdered. At that time, the underground groups increased their resistance activities. A joint body of Zionists and Communists, the General Jewish Fighting Organization, worked on an escape plan. In all, some 350 Kovno Jews escaped the ghetto to join the Partisans.

Kovno was liberated on August 1, 1944. At the war's end, almost 2,000 Kovno Jews had survived.

Subject/Index Terms:
Kovno (Lithuania: Ghetto)
Deportation scenes
Roundups and Deportations of Jews
Forced labor in ghettos
Creators:
Kadish, George (Kovno Ghetto photographer) (1941--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.53.01, Roundup and deportation of Jews from the Kovno ghetto, Lithuania,  to Auschwitz, October 1943, 16 October 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Deportation of Jews from Kovno Ghetto to Auschwitz. Photograph taken by George Kadish.
Subject/Index Terms:
Deportation scenes
Deportation to concentration camps
Kovno (Lithuania: Ghetto)
Lithuania
Kadish, George, Kovno Ghetto photographer, 1941-1945
Photographs, ghettos
Deportations to Auschwitz concentration camp
Lithuania (1939-1945)
Creators:
Kadish, George (Kovno Ghetto photographer) (1941--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.53.02, Jewish prisoners making shoes in a Kovno, Lithuania ghetto workshop, December 1943, December 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish forced laborers at work making shoes in a ghetto workshop. Kovno, Lithuania, December 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Kovno (Lithuania: Ghetto)
Forced labor in ghettos
Forced labor
day-to-day life in ghettos
Photographs, ghettos
Lithuania (1939-1945)
Ghetto workshops, 1939-1945
Jewish Star of David, ghettos
Creators:
German photographers in ghettos, 1939-1945 (1939-1945)
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.53.03, Children in the underground school in the Kovno ghetto, Lithuania, 1941-1944, 1941--1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photograph of children studying at the underground school created in the Kovno ghetto in Lithuania, 1941-1944.
Subject/Index Terms:
School in ghettos
Kovno (Lithuania: Ghetto)
Lithuania
day-to-day life in ghettos
Kadish, George, Kovno Ghetto photographer, 1941-1945
Lithuania (1939-1945)
Prisoners, children
Photographs, ghettos
Jewish resistance
Kovno ghetto underground school
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Kadish, George (Kovno Ghetto photographer) (1941--1945)
Sub-Collection 54: RG-23.54, Le Chambon sur Lignon, a town of refuge, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.

Town in southern France whose inhabitants protected some 3000-5000 Jews from the Nazis between 1941 and 1944. The rescue activities took place in Le Chambon were initiated and led by the town’s pastor, Andre Trocme, and his wife Magda. Trocme encouraged his constituents to assist Jews who were fleeing the Nazis by hiding them in their private homes and farms. Other Jews were given refuge in children’s homes and public institutions in Le Chambon. Some were then smuggled over the border into Switzerland. Volunteers from Le Chambon, such as Pastor Edouard Theis, took these Jews on dangerous journeys through French towns and villages; when they reached the Swiss border, they handed the Jews over to Protestant volunteers on the other side.

A cousin of Pastor Trocme named Daniel Trocme was the director of a children’s home in Le Chambon. In that capacity, he rescued many Jewish children. However, he was found out by the Germans in June 1943, and sent to the Buchenwald concentration camp, where he perished. After the war, Andre Trocme, Daniel Trocme, Edouard Theis, and 32 other inhabitants of Le Chambon were designated as “Righteous Among the Nations” by Yad Vashem.

Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish youth
Le Guepsy's Children's Home
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (southern France)
Trocme, Andre and Magda (Pastor of Le Chambon)
Theis, Edouardo (Pastor of Le Chambon)
Darcissac, Roger (Principal of school in Le Chambon)
Creators:
Protestant population of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (circa 1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.54.01, Jewish youth from La Guespy children's home posing in the snow, France, 1941-1944, 1941--1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish children sheltered by the Protestant population of the village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. France, between 1941 and 1944.
Subject/Index Terms:
Jewish youth
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (southern France)
Refugees of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon
La Guespy's children's home
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
French rescue and aid of Jewish children, 1940-1944
France (1940 -- 1945)
Creators:
Protestant population of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (circa 1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.54.02, Jewish youth from La Guespy children's home in Le Chambon sur Lignon, France, 1941, 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish children sheltered by the Protestant population of the village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. France, 1941.
Subject/Index Terms:
La Guespy's children's home
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (southern France)
Jewish youth
Refugees of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
French rescue and aid of Jewish children, 1940-1944
France (1940 -- 1945)
Creators:
Protestant population of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (circa 1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.54.03, Juliette Usach and four boys sit beneath a sign to Le Chambon sur Lignon, France, 1941, 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish children sheltered by the Protestant population of the village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. France, 1941. Juliette Usach, who ran the La Guespy children's home, and four boys sit beneath a sign to Le Chambon sur Lignon.
Subject/Index Terms:
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (southern France)
Refugees of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon
Jewish youth
Usach, Juliette, head of the La Guespy children's home in Le Chambon sur Lignon, France
La Guespy's children's home
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
French rescue and aid of Jewish children, 1940-1944
France (1940--1945)
Creators:
Protestant population of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (circa 1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.54.04, Pastor Andre Trocme (left), Roger Darcissa (center), and Pastor Edouard Theis (right), Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France ca 1942, ca1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

PIctured in this photograph is Pastor Andre Trocme, Roger Darcissac, and Pastor Edouard Theis.

Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France… 1942 – When Serge Sobelman, a 13-year-old Jewish boy living in Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, applied for admission to a public school in the village under an assumed name, Roger Darcissac, the principal of the school, realized immediately that Serge was Jewish. Roger enrolled Serge in the school despite the fact that Jewish students were not allowed to attend the school. Serge was not the only Jewish student attending the school; like everyone in Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Roger acted as if there were no Jews in the town, which made it easier for the townspeople to carry our their rescue efforts.Eventually, Roger was detained and interrogated by the French police. However, he never revealed that Jewish students were attending his school. After the police released him, Roger continued to protect the students. Serge Sobelman remained at the school until he graduated in July 1944. Roger Darcissac was recognized by Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust authority, in 1988.

Subject/Index Terms:
Theis, Edouardo (Pastor of Le Chambon)
Trocme, Andre and Magda (Pastor of Le Chambon)
Darcissac, Roger (Principal of school in Le Chambon)
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (southern France)
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
French rescue and aid of Jewish children, 1940-1944
France (1940--1945)
Creators:
Protestant population of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (circa 1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.54.05, Photograph of Le Chambon sur Lignon in southern France., unknownAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
View of Le Chambon, where most of the village's Protestant population hid Jews from the Nazis. Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, date uncertain.
Subject/Index Terms:
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (southern France)
Photographs, cities
Southern France
Photographs, France
Creators:
unknown
Sub-Collection 55: RG-23.55, Lublin ghetto, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.

Lublin is a city in Poland and the capital of the Lublin district. Right before World War II some 40,000 Jews lived in Lublin. During the first weeks of the war, before the German army reached Lublin, thousands of Jews arrived I the city seeking refuge. The Germans occupied Lublin on September 18, 1939, and immediately began persecuting the city’s Jews; many were sent to do forced labor, some were physically attacked by the Germans, and Jewish property was confiscated.in November 1939, Jews were forced to wear the Jewish badge, their movement was restricted, and those Jews living on the city’s main street were evicted from their homes.

Soon the Germans began implementing a grand plan to deport all of the Jews in Poland and the Reich to the Lublin district. This program known as the Nisko and Lublin Plan, was ultimately scrapped, but by February 1940 some 6,300 Jews had been brought to the area.

In January 1940 the Germans instituted a Judenrat in Lublin. The Judenrat set up welfare institutions, soup kitchens, health services, and orphanages However, when the German began arresting Jews for forced labor, the Judenrat was ordered to provide lists of even more Jewish names. The council eventually succumbed to German pressure, horrifying the city's Jews.

In the spring of 1941 the Germans ordered the establishment of a ghetto in Lublin. In preparation, they thinned out the city's Jewish population by deporting some 10,000 Jews to nearby towns. The ghetto was instituted in March 1941; it housed over 34,000 Jews.

The deportation of Jews to the Belzec concentration camp began on March 17, 1942; up to 1,400 Jews were deported daily. This deportation aktion ended on April 20 after 30,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths, leaving only 4,000 in the city. The remaining Jews were moved to a Lublin suburb; over the next few months, they were subjected to periodic selections. By October, 3,800 Jews had been selected for deportation to Majdanek, near the city. In July 1944 the last Jews from Lublin were murdered by the Germans. The city was liberated that same month.

Subject/Index Terms:
Lublin (Poland)
Hiding
Jewish hideouts within the ghetto
Lublin Castle Prison
Judenrat, Jewish council in ghettos
Judenraete (Jewish councils)
Creators:
German police and security forces, Lublin (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.55.01, A Jewish man is questioned by a German policeman, Lublin, Poland, December 1940, December 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A Jewish man is questioned by a German policeman, Lublin, December 1940, German Federal Archvie, photo 183-H27929, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
Lublin (Poland)
Lublin (Poland: ghetto)
Poland (1939--1945)
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
German police and security forces, Poland
Jewish confrontation with German police and security forces, Poland
Creators:
German police and security forces, Lublin (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.55.02, Nazis and Jews in the Lublin, Poland, ghetto, December 1940, December 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A street scene in the Lublin ghetto, December 1940, German Federal Archives, Photograph, 183, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
German police and security forces, Poland
Poland (1939--1945)
Lublin (Poland)
Jews in Lublin, 1939-1945
Lublin (Poland: ghetto)
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
German Soldiers
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
Creators:
German police and security forces, Lublin (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.55.03, Prisoners and Nazi guards in the Lublin Castle prison, December 1940, Deember 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Prisoners in the Lublin Castle prison, December 1940, German Federal Archive, photo 183-H27925, copyrighted.
Subject/Index Terms:
Military Uniforms (Nazi-German)
Lublin (Poland)
Lublin Castle Prison
German police and security forces, Poland
Political prisoners, Polish
Poland (1939--1945)
Prisoners, Jewish
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
Creators:
German police and security forces, Lublin (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.55.04, Entrance to the Judenrat in the Lublin ghetto, Poland, 1941-1944, circa 1941--1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Sign reads: " Jewish Council (Judenrat) in Lublin - department for refugee help ", not homeless.
Subject/Index Terms:
Lublin (Poland)
Judenrat, Jewish council in ghettos
Judenraete (Jewish councils)
Lublin (Poland: ghetto)
Jewish councils--Poland (1939-1945)
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Judenrat headquarters
Jewish Council (Judenrate), Lublin ghetto
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.55.05, Street map and aerial view of the Lublin ghetto in 1942, Poland, 1942Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A street map of the Lublin ghetto. This includes the former Lublin ghetto aerial view and a map of the Lublin ghetto as it was in 1942 .
Subject/Index Terms:
Lublin (Poland)
Maps and border lines
Aerial Photograph
Lublin (Poland: ghetto)
Maps, Lublin ghetto
Poland (1939--1945)
Creators:
Wikimedia Commons
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.55.06, Jewish men in hiding surrender to German soldiers, Lublin ghetto, Poland, December 1940, December 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Lublin ghetto, German soldiers find Jews in a Jewish hideout around the ghetto. The Jewish men are surrendering to the authorities.
Subject/Index Terms:
Poland (1939--1945)
Lublin (Poland)
Arrests and captures
Hiding
Lublin (Poland: ghetto)
Jewish hiding in the Lublin ghetto
Nazi-German discovery of Jews in hiding
German Police and Security forces, 1939 --1945
German police and security forces, Poland
Creators:
German police and security forces, Lublin (1941--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.55.07, Lubartowska Street in the Lublin ghetto, Poland, ca 1941, circa 1941Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A busy street within the Lublin ghetto. Many people crowd around near a building.
Subject/Index Terms:
Lublin (Lubartowska Street)
Lublin (Poland)
Poland (1939--1945)
Lublin (Poland: ghetto)
day-to-day life in ghettos
Photographs, ghettos
Ghettos, Poland
Photographs, Lublin
Creators:
Jewish photographers (1939--1945)
Sub-Collection 56: RG-23.56, Maly Trostenets, 1942--1943Add to your cart.

The Trostinets extermination camp or Maly Trostinets,also Maly Trastsianiets, was a Nazi German death camp located near the small village of Trostinets on the outskirts of Minsk in Reichskommissariat Ostland during World War II. It operated between July 1942 and October 1943, when the last Jews of Minsk (now the capital of Belarus) were murdered and buried.

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Maly Trostenets extermination camp (Reichskommissariat Ostland)
Creators:
German auxiliary police, Maly Trostenets death camp (July 1942-- October 1943)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.56.01, Auxiliary police pose near the entrance the camp Maly Trostenents, Belorussia, 1941--1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
The entrance gate to the Maly Trostenents camp. Auxiliary police are posing next to the railing.
Subject/Index Terms:
Maly Trostenets extermination camp (Reichskommissariat Ostland)
Auxiliary police forces, non-German, Second World War
Belorussia (1939-1945)
Belorussia, USSR
Main entrance, Maly Trostenents
Creators:
German auxiliary police, Maly Trostenets death camp (July 1942-- October 1943)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.56.02, Warning sign in front of Maly Trostenets death camp, Belorussia, 1941--1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A sign warning the public that this area is a secure area and may not be entered.
Subject/Index Terms:
Maly Trostenets extermination camp (Reichskommissariat Ostland)
Warning signs, concentration camps
Belorussia (1939-1945)
Belorussia, USSR
Creators:
German auxiliary police, Maly Trostenets death camp (July 1942-- October 1943)
Sub-Collection 57: RG-23.57, Medical experiments, circa 1944Add to your cart.
The Nazis' penchant for medical experiments and operations came to light as soon as Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933. From 1942 to 1945 some 70 medical research projects were carried out in Nazi camps. About 200 doctors were posted at the camps; their job was to conduct 'selektionen' and participate in these medical experiments, which were initiated by German and Austrian universities and research institutes. The medical experiments carried out in the camps can be divided into two major categories. The first category includes experiments that were not ethically problematic in and of themselves- in fact, their aims might have been acceptable under other circumstance- but the way in which they were carried out violated ethical codes. The second category includes experiments that both violated medical ethics in the way they were conducted and in their very purpose of being.
Subject/Index Terms:
Medical Experiments
Mengele, Josef
Auschwitz-Birkenau, concentration camp complex (Poland)
Children victims
Creators:
Auschwitz-Birkenau German camp administration (circa 1942--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.57.01, Child victims of Mengele's medical experiments, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, circa 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Children victim sof Dr. Mengele's medical experiments.

Josef Mengele was a German doctor and SS officer who served as chief physician at Auschwitz from 1943-1944. Mengele was in charge of the camp’s selection process, choosing who would live and who would die. In all, he sent about 400,000 people to their deaths in the gas chambers. He was also responsible for horrific pseudo-scientific medical experiments performed on camp prisoners, whose purpose it was to prove the superiority of the Aryan race. Mengele used human beings as guinea pigs to study their resistance and reaction to heat, cold, sterilization, and pain. He was mostly interested in babies, young twins, and dwarfs.

In May 1943, Mengele was stationed at Auschwitz where he worked until the camp’s evacuation in January 9145. He then moved to Mauthausen, after which he disappeared to South America. Despite concerted efforts to track him, Mengele never resurfaced. He may have drowned in Brazil in 1978. In 1985, a public trial of Mengele was held at Yad Vashem, in his absence.

Subject/Index Terms:
Mengele, Josef
Auschwitz-Birkenau, concentration camp complex (Poland)
Medical Experiments
Children victims
Poland (1939--1945)
Photographs, Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz (Concentration camp)
Creators:
Auschwitz-Birkenau German camp administration (circa 1942--1944)
Sub-Collection 58: RG-23.58, Rescue and aid, circa 1940--1944Add to your cart.
In this collection are documents relating to rescue and aid.
Subject/Index Terms:
Aid and rescue during the war
Wallenberg, Raoul (diplomat and humanitarian)
Sugihara, Chiune and Yukiko (Japanese diplomat and humanitarian)
Protective papers
Creators:
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.58.01, Hungarian Jews rescued by Raoul Wallenberg from deportation, Budapest, November 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Raoul Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 17, 1947?) was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat and humanitarian. He is widely celebrated for his successful efforts to rescue tens of thousands to about one hundred thousand Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from Hungarian Fascists and the Nazis during the later stages of World War II. While serving as Sweden's special envoy in Budapest between July and December 1944, Wallenberg issued protective passports and sheltered Jews in buildings

On January 17, 1945, during the Siege of Budapest by the Red Army, Wallenberg was detained by Soviet authorities on suspicion of espionage and subsequently disappeared. He was later reported to have died on July 17, 1947, while imprisoned in the Lubyanka, a building located in Moscow, Russia, housing both the KGB headquarters and its affiliated prison. The motives behind Wallenberg's arrest and imprisonment by the Soviet government, along with questions surrounding the circumstances of his death and his possible ties to US intelligence, remain mysterious and are the subject of continued speculation.

Due to his courageous actions on behalf of the Hungarian Jews, Raoul Wallenberg has been the subject of numerous humanitarian honors in the decades following his presumed death. In 1981, U.S. Congressman Tom Lantos, himself one of those saved by Wallenberg, sponsored a bill making Wallenberg an Honorary Citizen of the United States. He is also an honorary citizen of Canada, Hungary, Australia and Israel. Israel has also designated Wallenberg one of the Righteous among the Nations. Monuments have been dedicated to him, and streets have been named after him throughout the world. A Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States was created in 1981 to "perpetuate the humanitarian ideals and the nonviolent courage of Raoul Wallenberg." It gives the Raoul Wallenberg Award annually to recognize persons who carry out those goals. A postage stamp was issued by the U.S. in his honour in 1997. On July 26, 2012, he was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress "in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the Holocaust.”

Subject/Index Terms:
Aid and rescue during the war
Wallenberg, Raoul (diplomat and humanitarian)
Budapest (Hungary)
Hungarian Jews
Hungary (1939--1945)
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
Rescue and aid by Raoul Wallenberg
Holocaust, Hungarian
Creators:
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: RG-23.58.02, Chuine (Sempto) and Yukiko Sugihara, Japanese diplomat, 1939--1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Chiune (1 January 1900 – 31 July 1986) was a Japanese diplomat who served as Vice-Consul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania. During World War II, he helped several thousand Jews leave the country by issuing transit visas to Jewish refugees so that they could travel to Japan. Most of the Jews who escaped were refugees from German-occupied Poland and residents of Lithuania. Sugihara wrote travel visas that facilitated the escape of more than 6,000 Jewish refugees to Japanese territory, risking his career and his family's lives. Sugihara had told the refugees to call him "Sempo", the Sino-Japanese reading of the characters in his first name, discovering it was much easier for Western people to pronounce.[1] In 1985, Israel honored him as Righteous Among the Nations for his actions.

He was also married to Yukiko at the time, and she had supported his courageous efforts as well.

Subject/Index Terms:
Sugihara, Chiune and Yukiko (Japanese diplomat and humanitarian)
Aid and rescue during the war
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
Rescue and aid by Chuine (Sempto), Japanese diplomat
Japan (1941--1945)
Photographs, Japanese diplomats
Lithuania (1939-1945)
Kaunas (Lithuania)
Kovno (Lithuania)
Creators:
Japanese consulate photographer (circa 1939-1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: RG-23.58.03, Hungarian Jews wait at the Swedish legation in Budapest in a hope of obtaining Swedish protective papers, 1944, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Hungarian Jews wait ouside the Swedish legation in Budapest in hopes of obtaining the Swedish protective papers.
Subject/Index Terms:
Hungarian Jews
Protective papers
Swedish legation
Hungary (1939--1945)
Aid and rescue during the war
Wallenberg, Raoul (diplomat and humanitarian)
Creators:
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: RG-23.58.04, Jewish refugees at the gate of the Japanese consulate in Kaunas, Lithuania, July 1940, July 1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Jewish refugess line up against the gate of the Japanese consulate in Kaunas, Lithuania, hoping to get protective papers.
Subject/Index Terms:
Sugihara, Chiune and Yukiko (Japanese diplomat and humanitarian)
Japanese consulate (Kaunas, Lithuania)
Protective papers
Lithuania (1939-1945)
Jewish refugees
Photographs, Second World War
Aid and rescue during the war
Rescue and aid by Chuine (Sempto), Japanese diplomat
Creators:
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: RG-23.58.05, Raoul Wallenberg distributes protective passes at the Jozsefvarosi train station, Hungary, 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
At the Jozsefvarosi train station in Budapest, Raoul Wallenberg (at right, with hands clasped behind his back) rescues Hungarian Jews from deportation by providing them with protective passes. Budapest, Hungary, 1944.
Subject/Index Terms:
Protective papers
Budapest (Hungary)
Wallenberg, Raoul (diplomat and humanitarian)
Hungary (1939--1945)
Aid and rescue during the war
Rescue and aid by Raoul Wallenberg
Jozsefvarosi train station (Budapest: Hungary)
Creators:
Rescue and aid photographers (circa 1940--1944)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: RG-23.58.06, Raoul Wallenberg, passport photograph, June 1944, June 1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Raoul Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 17, 1947?) was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat and humanitarian. He is widely celebrated for his successful efforts to rescue tens of thousands to about one hundred thousand Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from Hungarian Fascists and the Nazis during the later stages of World War II. While serving as Sweden's special envoy in Budapest between July and December 1944, Wallenberg issued protective passports and sheltered Jews in buildings

On January 17, 1945, during the Siege of Budapest by the Red Army, Wallenberg was detained by Soviet authorities on suspicion of espionage and subsequently disappeared. He was later reported to have died on July 17, 1947, while imprisoned in the Lubyanka, a building located in Moscow, Russia, housing both the KGB headquarters and its affiliated prison. The motives behind Wallenberg's arrest and imprisonment by the Soviet government, along with questions surrounding the circumstances of his death and his possible ties to US intelligence, remain mysterious and are the subject of continued speculation.

Due to his courageous actions on behalf of the Hungarian Jews, Raoul Wallenberg has been the subject of numerous humanitarian honors in the decades following his presumed death. In 1981, U.S. Congressman Tom Lantos, himself one of those saved by Wallenberg, sponsored a bill making Wallenberg an Honorary Citizen of the United States. He is also an honorary citizen of Canada, Hungary, Australia and Israel. Israel has also designated Wallenberg one of the Righteous among the Nations. Monuments have been dedicated to him, and streets have been named after him throughout the world. A Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States was created in 1981 to "perpetuate the humanitarian ideals and the nonviolent courage of Raoul Wallenberg." It gives the Raoul Wallenberg Award annually to recognize persons who carry out those goals. A postage stamp was issued by the U.S. in his honour in 1997. On July 26, 2012, he was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress "in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the Holocaust.”

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Aid and rescue during the war
Wallenberg, Raoul (diplomat and humanitarian)
Passport photograph
Righteous Among the Nations
Photographs, diplomats
Sweden (1939--1945)
Passport, Swedish
Creators:
Swedish government (1930--1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: RG-23.58.07, Photograph of Sempto (Chiune) Sugihara, 1939--1940Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
Chiune (1 January 1900 – 31 July 1986) was a Japanese diplomat who served as Vice-Consul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania. During World War II, he helped several thousand Jews leave the country by issuing transit visas to Jewish refugees so that they could travel to Japan. Most of the Jews who escaped were refugees from German-occupied Poland and residents of Lithuania. Sugihara wrote travel visas that facilitated the escape of more than 6,000 Jewish refugees to Japanese territory, risking his career and his family's lives. Sugihara had told the refugees to call him "Sempo", the Sino-Japanese reading of the characters in his first name, discovering it was much easier for Western people to pronounce.In 1985, Israel honored him as Righteous Among the Nations for his actions.
Subject/Index Terms:
Sugihara, Chiune and Yukiko (Japanese diplomat and humanitarian)
Aid and rescue during the war
Righteous Among the Nations
Rescue and aid by Chuine (Sempto), Japanese diplomat
Photographs, Japanese diplomats
Japan (1941--1945)
Creators:
Japanese consulate photographer (circa 1939-1944)
Folder 52: RG-23.52, Kindertransport, circa 1938--1940Add to your cart.

The Kindertransport was a rescue mission that took place during the nine months prior to the outbreak of the Second World War. The United Kingdom took in nearly 10,000 predominantly Jewish children from Nazi Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Free City of Danzig. The children were placed in British foster homes, hostels, schools and farms. Often they were the only members of their families who survived the Holocaust.

World Jewish Relief (then called The Central British Fund for German Jewry) was established in 1933 as a direct result and to support in whatever way possible the needs of Jews both in Germany and Austria. Records for many of the children who arrived in the UK through the Kindertransports are maintained by World Jewish Relief.

(Wikipedia)

Subject/Index Terms:
Kindertransport
Creators:
British military authorities (1945)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-23.52.01, British officer walking with two Jewish children from the Kindertransport, England, December 1938, December 1938Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A photo of a British officer and two children from the kindertransport.
Subject/Index Terms:
World Jewish Relief
Movement for the Care of Children in Germany
Kindertransport
British Parliament, 1939-1945
Non-Jewish assistance of Jews
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
British rescue and aid of Jewish children, 1938-1939
British officer
Britain (1938-1940)
Creators:
British military authorities (1944 -- 1945)

Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-23.01, Slovakian Jewry, 1940 -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-23.02, Jerzy Tomaszewski Collection, 1940 -- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 3: RG-23.03, Holocaust in France, 1940 -- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 4: RG-23.04, Holocaust in Greece, 1920s -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 5: RG-23.05, Holocaust in Denmark, 1940 -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 6: RG-23.06, Nazi Takeover of Czechoslovakia, 1939 -- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 7: RG-23.07, Dachau concentration camp, 1945],
[Sub-Collection 8: RG-23.08, Gross-Rosen concentration camp, deportation lists, 1945],
[Sub-Collection 9: RG-23.09, Bialystok ghetto, 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 10: RG-23.10, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, 1936--1945],
[Sub-Collection 11: RG-23.11, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the wake of liberation, circa 1943--1945],
[Sub-Collection 12: RG-23.12, The Netherlands, German invasion, circa 1940--1945],
[Sub-Collection 13: RG-23.13, Atrocities, mass killings in German-occupied Europe, Second World War., circa 1939--1945],
[Sub-Collection 14: RG-23.14, Holocaust of the Hungarian Jewry, circa 1940--1945],
[Sub-Collection 16: RG-23.16, Minsk ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 17: RG-23.17, Anti-Jewish measures and violation of Jewish property, circa 1941],
[Sub-Collection 18: RG-23.18, Jewish Police in the ghettos, circa 1942],
[Sub-Collection 19: RG-23.19, Norway, June 2008],
[Sub-Collection 20: RG-23.20, Lwow ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 21: RG-23.21, Camp scenes before the liberation, circa 1943--1945],
[Sub-Collection 22: RG-23.22, Humiliation and mockery perpetrated by Germans, circa 1933-1945],
[Sub-Collection 23: RG-23.23, Cracow ghetto, circa 1939-- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 24: RG-23.24, Invasion of Poland, circa 1939- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 25: RG-23.25, Riga ghetto, circa 1941- 1944],
[Sub-Collection 26: RG-23.26, Sobibor concentration camp, circa 1942- 1943],
[Sub-Collection 27: RG-23.27, German invasion of Western Europe, circa 1940],
[Sub-Collection 28: RG-23.28, Deportation and transport scenes, circa 1939-1944],
[Sub-Collection 29: RG-23.29, Theresienstadt, circa 1941-1945],
[Sub-Collection 30: RG-23.30, Mauthausen, circa 1938-1945],
[Sub-Collection 31: RG-23.31, Bulgaria, circa 1940-1944],
[Sub-Collection 32: RG-23.32, Yugoslavia, undated],
[Sub-Collection 33: RG-23.33, Treblinka, circa 1945],
[Sub-Collection 34: RG-23.34, Babi Yar, circa 1941],
[Sub-Collection 35: RG-23.35, Belgium, circa 1940--1944],
[Sub-Collection 36: RG-23.36, Ukraine, circa 1939-1944],
[Sub-Collection 37: RG-23.37, Vilna ghetto, circa September 1941- September 1943],
[Sub-Collection 38: RG-23.38, Nordhausen, circa 1943-1945],
[Sub-Collection 39: RG-23.39, Munich Accord, circa 1938-1939, 2010],
[Sub-Collection 40: RG-23.40, Varian Fry, circa 1940-1967],
[Sub-Collection 41: RG-23.41, Warsaw Ghetto forced posing, circa 1940-1943],
[Sub-Collection 42: RG-23.42, Belzec, circa 1942-1943],
[Sub-Collection 43: RG-23.43, Drancy, circa 1941-1944],
[Sub-Collection 44: RG-23.44, Drohobycz, circa 1900- 1945],
[Sub-Collection 45: RG-23.45, Einsatzgruppen, 1941],
[Sub-Collection 46: RG-23.46, False identity, 1943],
[Sub-Collection 47: RG-23.47, Galicia, 1939-1942],
[Sub-Collection 48: RG-23.48, Invasion of the Soviet Union, circa 1940--1942],
[Sub-Collection 49: RG-23.49, Janowska Camp, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 50: RG-23.50, Jasenovac concentration camp, 1941--1945],
[Sub-Collection 51: RG-23.51, Jewish resistance, circa 1941--1945],
[Sub-Collection 53: RG-23.53, Kovno ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 54: RG-23.54, Le Chambon sur Lignon, a town of refuge, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 55: RG-23.55, Lublin ghetto, circa 1941--1944],
[Sub-Collection 56: RG-23.56, Maly Trostenets, 1942--1943],
[Sub-Collection 57: RG-23.57, Medical experiments, circa 1944],
[Sub-Collection 58: RG-23.58, Rescue and aid, circa 1940--1944],
[Folder 52: RG-23.52, Kindertransport, circa 1938--1940],
[All]


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