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Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworksi-Pratt) Papers

Overview

Abstract

Scope and Contents

Biographical Note

Detailed Description

RG-01.04.01, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), testimony, a letter to her Polish mentor



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Collection Overview

Title: Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworksi-Pratt) Papers, 1939 -- 1966Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Predominant Dates:1939 --1966

ID: RG-01.04/RG-01.04

Primary Creator: Anna Przeworski-Pratt, the former prisoner of ghettos and concentration camps, lawyer (1930s -- 19780s)

Extent: 1.0 Boxes

Subjects: Anna Przeworski - Pratt, former prisoner of German ghettos and concentration camp, Polish attorney, Anna Przeworski - Pratt, personal discourse and recollections, 1930s -- 1960s, Anti-Jewish actions in Czestochowa, Poland, 1939 -- 1943, Anti-Jewish actions in Czestochowa, Poland, 1939 -- 1943, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Chairmen of Jewish Councils (Judenraete) in German-occupied and controlled territories, Collaboration between the members of Jewish councils and German administration, Collaboration of Jewish Councils (Judenraete) in German-occupied Poland, 1939 -- 1945, Czestochowa (Poland: Kielce province), population, Second General Census, 1931, Czestochowa (Poland: Kielce province: county), national self-identification, Second General Census,, Dawid Gertler, chief of the Special Department (Sonderabteilung) of the Jewish ghetto police, Dawid Gertler, Jewish collaborator with Nazi German regime in occupied Poland, Documents in Polish language, Extermination of Jewish intelligentsia--Czestochowa (Poland), Filip (Philip) Friedman, Polish-Jewish historian, public figure and author, First day of the German invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939, Hardship of American working life, aloofness and indifference of society and individuals, Hasag Pelcery (Czestochowa, Poland: Concentration Camp), Hasag Pelcery (Czestochowa, Poland: Concentration Camp), Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Immigration to the United States, postwar, Immigration to the United States, postwar, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Immigration to the United States, postwar, Tamara Epstein, Integration into American way of life, Polish-Jewish immigrants, postwar, Integration into American way of life Polish-Jewish immigrants Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworsk-Pratt), Intensity of working life, United States, postwar, Intensity of working life, United States, postwar, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Interwar Poland, Investigation of Jewish collaborators, Jewish administration in Czestochowa ghetto, corruption and collaboration, Jewish administration in Czestochowa ghetto corruption and collaboration Estera Epstein (Przeworska), Jewish collaborators on trials, Jewish collaborators with Nazi-German regime, Jewish collaborators with Nazi German regime, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Jewish courts of honor, Munich (Germany), Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Jewish courts of honor--Munich (Germany), Judenraete (Jewish councils), Legal (Judicial) Department, Central Committee of Liberated Jews in Germany, Estera Epstein, Legal defense to Jewish collaborators, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Marriages in emigration, postwar, Marriages in emigration, postwar, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Andrzej Przeworski, Mass killings--Czestochowa (Poland), Narratives in Polish language, Poland under German invasion, September 1939, Poland under German invasion, September 1939, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Post-Holocaust discourse and search for meaning, Post-Holocaust discourse and search for meaning, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Postwar adjustment and adaptation, Postwar adjustment and adaptation, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Postwar trial over the Nazi perpetrators in Czestochowa, Estera Epstein, Leipzig, 1949, Postwar trial over the Nazi perpetrators in Czestochowa, Leipzig, 1949, Practice in jurisprudence, interwar Poland, Practice in jurisprudence, interwar Poland, Anna Przeworska Pratt, Practice in jurisprudence, interwar Poland, Estera Epstein, Proceedings against Jewish collaborators with German administration, postwar, Self-identification of the former Polish-Jewish emigrants and existential reflections Estera Epstein, Tamara Epstein, sister of Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Witnesses on the trials over Nazi criminals, Witnesses on the trials over Nazi criminals, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Witnesses on the trials over Nazi criminals, Tamara Epstein

Languages: Polish, English

Abstract

Anna Przeworski Pratt Papers is a collection of reflective testimonies analyzing personal wartime and postwar discourse.

This Collections also contains personal documents and photographs

Scope and Contents of the Materials

Estera Epstein  was born in Czestochowa, Poland. She received jurisprudence education in University of Warsaw.  She survived German ghettos and concentration camps. After the war, employed by the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in Germany, she rendered legal services to the Committee and to the alleged Jewish collaborators. The Jewish collaborators were under the investigation of the Law Department of this Central Committee. Anna Przeworska Prattt maintained legal defense on their behalf in the Jewish Courts of Honor in postwar Germany.

Collection Historical Note

Anna Przeworska-Pratt was born in Czestochowa, Poland. She completed her studies of law at the University of Warsaw. Her intentions were to become a judge, and she applied for such a position. Her application was denied on the basis of semi-official ethno-religious and gender restriction, namely she was Jewish and woman. Anna chose quite a common path for the Jewish jurists of that time. She joined a bar association Soon she become a lawyer. As early as 1937, she opened a law office of her own in Czestochowa. In the same year, a Jewish pogrom occurred in Czestochowa to which Anna refers in her testimony/letter.

Anna Przeworski-Pratt lived in Czestochowa, when Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. During the first week of the war, she, her parents, and two brothers moved to Łódź and then to Warsaw. She stayed in Warsaw until 13 October 1939, when she ultimately returned to Czestochowa. The war was over by the end of September 1939; when central, west and north Poland was occupied by Germany. Polish eastern territories (eastern Galicia, western Belorussia and western Wolyn)  were annexed by the Soviet Union according to the Stalin-Hitler agreement, known as the Secret Protocol to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which was signed 23rd of August 1939.

In Czestochowa, Mrs. Przeworski-Pratt being a well-educated professional found a job with the Judenraet (German-ordered Jewish Council) in Czestochowa.  The Judenraet put her in charge of the office for commerce and industry.  Largely, Anna does not refer to this Jewish Council by its official German name, but rather by its unofficial pre-war title – the Council of Seniors. It was true, because the Germans reinstated the pre-war executive body of the local Jewish community. Her position was among the elevated and privileged ones within the Judenraet hierarchy. The Germans honored the authorizations for trade and commerce issued by Mrs. Przeworski-Pratt office. Helping people, she issued a number of fake business permits. Despite being an upper-level Judenrat’s employee, she remained in confrontation with its Chairman Leon (Lejb) Kopinski. Anna resented the Chairman’s negligence towards the ordinary ghetto inhabitants and his preferred treatment of the wealthy and influential people.

Mrs. Przeworski-Pratt witnessed to several round-ups and actions in the ghetto, which resulted either in mass deportation to Treblinka Death Camp or in mass killings at the Jewish cemetery in Czestochowa. In this testimony, she describes the Yom Kippur Action of 22 September 1942. Being aware of the upcoming action, the members of the Judenraet collected 100,000 German Marks and passed the money to Stadthauptmann Franke, the German commandant of the town. The latter assured them that the action had been canceled. However, the anti-Jewish action took place sometime later under the order of Degenhard, the other SS commander.

At the end of March 1943, the Germans annihilated the Jewish intelligentsia of the Czestochowa ghetto – doctors, lawyers, and the majority of the Judenraet members. This mass killing took place at the Jewish Cemetery. Anna and her sister Tamara survived this action. Mrs. Przeworski-Pratt also witnessed to the last action in the ghetto that took place on 26 June 1943, when all the remaining Jewish youth, around 500 people, were murdered at the Jewish cemetery.

Anna and her sister Tamara were among those fortunate selected by the Germans for forced labor. From 22 March 1943 through 15 January 1945, they worked at the ammunition factory ‘Hassag-Peltzery’ in Czestochowa. When the Soviet Army’s soldiers had already taken Czestochowa, the remaining laborers of ‘Hassag-Peltzery’ were rapidly evacuated to the concentration camp Gross Rosen in Lower Silesia (Germany, nowadays Poland). Soon after the arrival to Gross Rosen, Anna and her sister Tamara were transferred to the Ravensbrueck concentration camp. They remained prisoners of this camp from 23 January 1945 until the beginning March 1945. The next camp, they had been transferred to was a sub -camp of Dachau—the concentration camp Burgau in Bavaria. Since March 1945, owing to the advancing American armed forces, the camp prisoners were transferred from camp to camp. For many, those marches became death marches. Ultimately, the German guards lest their column in the rural area unguarded. De facto, they were no longer camp prisoners since 27 April 1945. The German camp official announced to them that the war was over.

Mrs. Przeworski-Pratt provides the detail-oriented description of the postwar period in Germany. She worked as an attorney for the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in Germany She rendered legal. She was also present at the Nurnberg Trial of the major German war criminals in 1946.

From 1946 to 1949, Anna Przeworski- Pratt, then known as Estera Epstein worked for the Legal Department of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in US Occupation Zone of Germany as an attorney. She served as a defense attorney in the trials against the Jewish collaborators. For example, she defended Dawid Gertler and Henryk Gliksman (see corresponding name-subjects in this Archive). 

In 1949, Mrs. Przeworski-Pratt and her sister Tamara arrived in New York.

Biographical Note

Anna Przeworska Pratt was born in Czestochowa, Poland. She received jurisprudence education in University of Warsaw.  She survived German ghettos and concentration camps. After the war, employed by the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in Germany, she rendered legal services to the Committee and to the alleged Jewish collaborators. The Jewish collaborators were under the investigation of the Law Department of this Central Committee. Anna Przeworska Prattt maintained legal defense on their behalf in the Jewish Courts of Honor in postwar Germany.

Subject/Index Terms

Anna Przeworski - Pratt, former prisoner of German ghettos and concentration camp, Polish attorney
Anna Przeworski - Pratt, personal discourse and recollections, 1930s -- 1960s
Anti-Jewish actions in Czestochowa, Poland, 1939 -- 1943
Anti-Jewish actions in Czestochowa, Poland, 1939 -- 1943, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Chairmen of Jewish Councils (Judenraete) in German-occupied and controlled territories
Collaboration between the members of Jewish councils and German administration
Collaboration of Jewish Councils (Judenraete) in German-occupied Poland, 1939 -- 1945
Czestochowa (Poland: Kielce province), population, Second General Census, 1931
Czestochowa (Poland: Kielce province: county), national self-identification, Second General Census,
Dawid Gertler, chief of the Special Department (Sonderabteilung) of the Jewish ghetto police
Dawid Gertler, Jewish collaborator with Nazi German regime in occupied Poland
Documents in Polish language
Extermination of Jewish intelligentsia--Czestochowa (Poland)
Filip (Philip) Friedman, Polish-Jewish historian, public figure and author
First day of the German invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Hardship of American working life, aloofness and indifference of society and individuals
Hasag Pelcery (Czestochowa, Poland: Concentration Camp)
Hasag Pelcery (Czestochowa, Poland: Concentration Camp), Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Immigration to the United States, postwar
Immigration to the United States, postwar, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Immigration to the United States, postwar, Tamara Epstein
Integration into American way of life, Polish-Jewish immigrants, postwar
Integration into American way of life Polish-Jewish immigrants Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworsk-Pratt)
Intensity of working life, United States, postwar
Intensity of working life, United States, postwar, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Interwar Poland
Investigation of Jewish collaborators
Jewish administration in Czestochowa ghetto, corruption and collaboration
Jewish administration in Czestochowa ghetto corruption and collaboration Estera Epstein (Przeworska)
Jewish collaborators on trials
Jewish collaborators with Nazi-German regime
Jewish collaborators with Nazi German regime, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Jewish courts of honor, Munich (Germany), Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Jewish courts of honor--Munich (Germany)
Judenraete (Jewish councils)
Legal (Judicial) Department, Central Committee of Liberated Jews in Germany, Estera Epstein
Legal defense to Jewish collaborators, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Marriages in emigration, postwar
Marriages in emigration, postwar, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), Andrzej Przeworski
Mass killings--Czestochowa (Poland)
Narratives in Polish language
Poland under German invasion, September 1939
Poland under German invasion, September 1939, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Post-Holocaust discourse and search for meaning
Post-Holocaust discourse and search for meaning, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Postwar adjustment and adaptation
Postwar adjustment and adaptation, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Postwar trial over the Nazi perpetrators in Czestochowa, Estera Epstein, Leipzig, 1949
Postwar trial over the Nazi perpetrators in Czestochowa, Leipzig, 1949
Practice in jurisprudence, interwar Poland
Practice in jurisprudence, interwar Poland, Anna Przeworska Pratt
Practice in jurisprudence, interwar Poland, Estera Epstein
Proceedings against Jewish collaborators with German administration, postwar
Self-identification of the former Polish-Jewish emigrants and existential reflections Estera Epstein
Tamara Epstein, sister of Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Witnesses on the trials over Nazi criminals
Witnesses on the trials over Nazi criminals, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Witnesses on the trials over Nazi criminals, Tamara Epstein


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Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: RG-01.04.01, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), testimony, a letter to her Polish mentorAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
Ester Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt) narrated a personal discourse in the form of the letter to her prewar Polish mentor in jurisprudence
Subject/Index Terms:
Anna Przeworski - Pratt, former prisoner of German ghettos and concentration camp, Polish attorney
Anna Przeworski - Pratt, personal discourse and recollections, 1930s -- 1960s
Personal memoirs and recollections
Interwar Poland
Interwar Poland, personal discourse and reflections, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Czestochowa (Poland: Kielce province: county), population, Second General Census, 1931
First day of the German invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
German invasion of Poland, September 1939
German invasion of Poland, personal recollections and reflections, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworski)
Departments of Jewish Councils in the ghettos
Activities of Jewish Councils (Judenraete) Poland, 1939 -- 1945
Jewish Councils (Judenrate) deceptions
Jewish councils--chairmen
Members of Jewish Council (Judenrat)
Judenraete (Jewish councils)
Jewish Council (Judenrat) of the Czestochowa ghetto
Jewish Council (Judenrat) of the Czestochowa ghetto, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Jewish administration in Czestochowa ghetto, corruption and collaboration
Jewish administration in Czestochowa ghetto corruption and collaboration Estera Epstein (Przeworska)
Leon Kpinski, Chairman of the Jewish Council (Judenrat) in Czestochowa ghetto
Anticipation of actions (Aktion) in the ghettos
Anticipation of actions (Aktion) in the Czestochowa ghetto
Anticipation of actions (Aktion) in the Czestochowa ghetto, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Roundups and Actions in the ghettos
Action (Aktion) in the Czestochowa ghetto, September 22, 1942
Action (Aktion) in the Czestochowa ghetto, September 22, 1942 Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Being rescued from Actions (Aktion) in the ghettos
Being rescued from Action (Aktion) in the Czestochowa ghetto
Being rescued from Action (Aktion) in Czestochowa ghetto, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
The role of protection, connections and money in the survival in the Holocaust
The role of connections, personal relations and friends in precarious situations
The role of connections, personal relations and friends in precarious situations, Estera Epstein
Corruption in the ghettos, 1940 -- 1945
Extermination of Jewish intelligentsia--Czestochowa (Poland)
Mass killing of Jewish and Polish intelligentsia in German-occupied Poland, 1939 -- 1945
Mass killing of Jewish intelligentsia in Czestochowa, March 1943
Mass killing of Jewish intelligentsia in Czestochowa, March 1943, Esstera Epstein
Means of survival, not in ghettos or concentration camps
Personal instincts and and will for survival in the ghettos
Personal instincts and will for survival in Czestochowa ghetto Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt
Hasag Pelcery (Czestochowa, Poland: Concentration Camp)
Hasag Pelcery (Czestochowa, Poland: Concentration Camp), Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Narratives in Polish language
Documents in Polish language
Action (Aktion) in the Czestochowa ghetto, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Attempts to escape from forced marches, prisoner female, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Being rescued from imminent danger, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Being rescued from imminent danger, wartime
Burgau (Germany: Concentration Camp)
Burgau (Germany: Concentration Camp), Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), memoirs
Captain (Hauptman) Degenhardt, administrator of the Czestochowa ghetto
Captain (Hauptman) Degenhardt, administrator of the Czestochowa ghetto, Estera Epstein
Escape from forced marches, wartime
Evacuation routes, wartime, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Evacuation of Hasag-Pelcery concentration camp, 1945
Fairness Honor Integrity Loyalty, human qualities in existential realities
Fate of relatives and loved ones
Fate of relatives and loved ones, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Fear, self preservation, egoism, betrayal in existential realities, memoir of Estera Epstein
Forced marches, prisoner female, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt), memoirs
Forced marches, prisoner female, wartime
Gross-Rosen (Concentration camp)
Help and comradeship between prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps
Jewish Cemetery in Czestochowa, mass killing site, Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworska Pratt)
Prisoner functionaries
Prisoners-functionaries, female
Prisoners of Nazi-German concentration camps, antisemitism
Ravensbrueck (Germany: Concentration Camp)
Creators:
Anna Przeworski-Pratt, the former prisoner of ghettos and concentration camps, lawyer (1930s -- 19780s)
Estera Epstein (Anna Przeworski Pratt) Polish-Jewish lawyer the former prisoner of camps and ghettoi


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